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A practical guide to understanding, designing, and deploying MPLS and MPLS-enabled VPNs
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is an innovative technique for high-performance packet forwarding. There are many uses for this new technology, both within a service-provider environment and within the enterprise network, and the most widely deployed usage today is the enabling of Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). With the introduction of MPLS-enabled VPNs, network designers are able to better scale their networks than with the methods available in the past.
Network engineers and administrators need quick, effective education on this technology to efficiently deploy MPLS-enabled VPNs within their networks. With that goal in mind, MPLS and VPN Architectures provides an in-depth discussion particular to Cisco's MPLS architecture. This book covers MPLS theory and configuration, network design issues, and case studies as well as one major MPLS application: MPLS-based VPNs. The MPLS/VPN architecture and all its mechanisms are explained with configuration examples, suggested design and deployment guidelines, and extensive case studies.
MPLS and VPN Architectures is your practical guide to understanding, designing, and deploying MPLS and MPLS-based VPNs.
I. MPLS TECHNOLOGY AND CONFIGURATION.1. Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Architecture Overview.
Scalability and Flexibility of IP-based Forwarding.
Network Layer Routing Paradigm. Differentiated Packet Servicing. Independent Forwarding and Control. External Routing Information Propagation.
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Introduction.
MPLS Architecture—The Building Blocks. Label Imposition at the Network Edge. MPLS Packet Forwarding and Label Switched Paths.
Other MPLS Applications. Summary. Summary.2. Frame-mode MPLS Operation.
Frame-mode MPLS Data Plane Operation.
MPLS Label Stack Header. Label Switching in Frame-mode MPLS.
Label Bindings and Propagation in Frame-mode MPLS.
LDP/TDP Session Establishment. Label Binding and Distribution. Convergence in a Frame-mode MPLS Network.
Penultimate Hop Popping. MPLS Interaction with the Border Gateway Protocol. Summary.3. Cell-mode MPLS Operation.
Control-plane Connectivity Across an LC-ATM Interface.
MPLS Control-plane Connectivity in Cisco IOS Software. Control-plane Implementation in an ATM Switch.
Labeled Packet Forwarding Across an ATM LSR Domain. Label Allocation and Distribution Across an ATM LSR Domain.
VC Merge. Convergence Across an ATM LSR Domain.
Summary.4. Running Frame-mode MPLS Across Switched WAN Media.
Frame-mode MPLS Operation Across Frame Relay. Frame-mode MPLS Operation Across ATM PVCs.
Frame-mode and Cell-mode MPLS Across the Same ATM Interface.
Summary.5. Advanced MPLS Topics.
Controlling the Distribution of Label Mappings. MPLS Encapsulation Across Ethernet Links.
IP MTU Path Discovery. Ethernet Switches and MPLS MTU.
MPLS Loop Detection and Prevention.
Loop Detection and Prevention in Frame-mode MPLS. Loop Detection and Prevention in Cell-mode MPLS.
Traceroute Across an MPLS-enabled Network. Route Summarization Within an MPLS-enabled Network. Summary.6. MPLS Migration and Configuration Case Study.
Migration of the Backbone to a Frame-mode MPLS Solution. Pre-migration Infrastructure Checks.
Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) Requirements.
Addressing the Internal BGP Structure. Migration of Internal Links to MPLS. Removal of Unnecessary BGP Peering Sessions. Migration of an ATM-based Backbone to Frame-mode MPLS.
Cell-mode MPLS Migration.
II. MPLS-BASED VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORKS.7. Virtual Private Network (VPN) Implementation Options.
Virtual Private Network Evolution.
Modern Virtual Private Networks.
Business Problem-based VPN Classification. Overlay and Peer-to-peer VPN Model.
Overlay VPN Model. Peer-to-peer VPN Model.
Typical VPN Network Topologies.
Hub-and-spoke Topology. Partial- or Full-mesh Topology. Hybrid Topology. Simple Extranet Topology. Central-services Extranet. VPDN Topology. Managed Network VPN Topology.
Summary.8. MPLS/VPN Architecture Overview.
Case Study: Virtual Private Networks in SuperCom Service Provider Network. VPN Routing and Forwarding Tables. Overlapping Virtual Private Networks. Route Targets. Propagation of VPN Routing Information in the Provider Network.
Multiprotocol BGP in the SuperCom Network.
VPN Packet Forwarding. Summary.9. MPLS/VPN Architecture Operation.
Case Study: Basic MPLS/VPN Intranet Service. Configuration of VRFs. Route Distinguishers and VPN-IPv4 Address Prefixes.
Configuration of the Route Distinguisher.
BGP Extended Community Attribute.
Route Target BGP Extended Community. Site of Origin BGP Extended Community. BGP Extended Community Attribute Format.
Basic PE to CE Link Configuration.
PE to CE Link Configuration—Static Routing. PE to CE Link Configuration—RIP Version 2.
Association of Interfaces to VRFs. Multiprotocol BGP Usage and Deployment.
Configuration of Multiprotocol BGP. Enhanced BGP Decision Process for VPN-IPv4 Prefixes.
Outbound Route Filtering (ORF) and Route Refresh Features.
Automatic Route Filtering on PE-routers. Refreshing Routing Information Between PE-routers. ORF for PE-routers.
MPLS/VPN Data Plane—Packet Forwarding. Summary.10. Provider Edge (PE) to Customer Edge (CE) Connectivity Options.
VPN Customer Access into the MPLS/VPN Backbone. BGP-4 Between Service Provider and Customer Networks. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Between PE- and CE-routers. Separation of VPN Customer Routing Information. Propagation of OSPF Routes Across the MPLS/VPN Backbone.
BGP Extended Community Attribute for OSPF Routes.
PE-to-CE Connectivity—OSPF with Site Area 0 Support. PE-to-CE Connectivity—OSPF Without Site Area 0 Support. VPN Customer Connectivity—MPLS/VPN Design Choices.
Migrating Customers Using iBGP in Their Network to MPLS/VPN Service. Autonomous System Number Override.
Summary.11. Advanced MPLS/VPN Topologies.
Intranet and Extranet Integration. Central Services Topology. MPLS/VPN Hub-and-spoke Topology. Deployment of the AllowAS-in Feature.
Summary.12. Advanced MPLS/VPN Topics.
MPLS/VPN: Scaling the Solution. Routing Convergence Within an MPLS-enabled VPN Network.
Convergence Within the Service Provider Backbone. Convergence Between VPN Sites.
Advertisement of Routes Across the Backbone.
BGP for VPN-IPv4 and IPv4 Routing Information. Full Mesh of MP-iBGP Between PE-routers. Separation of MP-iBGP Sessions Between PE-routers.
Introduction of Route Reflector Hierarchy.
Route Reflection of PE Routes to Aid Scaling. Route Reflector Partitioning. Standard Community Filtering on PE-routers. Route Target Attribute-based Filtering on Route Reflectors. Route Reflection and ORF Capability.
BGP Confederations Deployment.
BGP Confederations—Single IGP Environment. BGP Confederations—Multiple IGP Environment.
PE-router Provisioning and Scaling. Additional Connectivity Requirements—Internet Access. Internet Connectivity Through Firewalls. Internet Access—Static Default Routing. Separate BGP Session Between PE- and CE-routers. Internet Connectivity Through Dynamic Default Routing.
Dynamic Default Routing—Route Target Assignment. Association of the Global Routing Table with a VRF.
Additional Lookup in the Global Routing Table. Internet Connectivity Through a Different Service Provider. Summary.13. Guidelines for the Deployment of MPLS/VPN.
Introduction to MPLS/VPN Deployment. IGP to BGP Migration of Customer Routes. Multiprotocol BGP Deployment in an MPLS/VPN Backbone.
VPN Routes and Next-hop Forwarding. PE Router Loopback Address Configuration.
MPLS/VPN Deployment on LAN Interfaces. Network Management of Customer Links. Advertisement of Routes with Different Extended Communities. Use of Standard BGP Communities for Route Filtering. Advertisement of Routes with Different Route Targets Using Export Maps. Use of Traceroute Across an MPLS/VPN Backbone. Summary.14. Carrier's Carrier and Inter-provider VPN Solutions.
Carrier's Carrier Solution Overview. Carrier's Carrier Architecture—Topologies.
ISP with No MPLS Deployment Within POP Sites. ISP with MPLS Deployed Within POP Sites.
Hierarchical Virtual Private Networks. Inter-provider VPN Solutions.
Inter-provider VPN—Exchange of VPN-IPv4 Across Boundaries. Inter-provider VPN—Multi-hop eBGP Between Customer Sites.
Summary.15. IP Tunneling to MPLS/VPN Migration Case Study.
Existing VPN Solution Deployment—IP Tunneling. Definition of VPNs and Routing Policies for PE-routers. Definition of VRFs Within the Backbone Network. VRF and Routing Polices for SampleNet VPN Sites. VRF and Routing Policies for SampleNet Internet Access. VRF and Routing Policies for Internet Access Customers. MPLS/VPN Migration—Staging and Execution.
Migration of the SampleNet Central Site.
Configuration of MP-iBGP on BGP Route Reflectors. Configuration of MP-iBGP on TransitNet PE-routers. Migration of VPN Sites onto the MPLS/VPN Solution. Summary.Appendix A: Tag-switching and MPLS Command Reference.