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Microsoft Windows 2000 Security Handbook

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Microsoft Windows 2000 Security Handbook

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  • Copyright 2000
  • Edition: 1st
  • Premium Website
  • ISBN-10: 0-7897-1999-1
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-1999-7

Windows 2000 Security Handbook covers NTFS fault tolerance, Kerberos authentication, Windows 2000 intruder detection and writing secure applications for Windows 2000.

Sample Content

Table of Contents


Network Administrators by Default. Religious Wars and FUD. Architecture of This Book. How to Use This Book. Providing Feedback. Enjoy!


1. Architecture.

A New Windows. The Windows 2000 Operating System Model.

Kernel Mode and User Mode. Hardware Abstraction Layer. Kernel. Executive. Kernel Mode Win32 Components. Device Drivers. User Mode Modules. System Support Processes. Services. Environment Subsystems. NTDLL.DLL.

Windows 2000 System Processes and Files. Memory.

Paging. Kernel Pool.

Kernel Objects.

Kernel Object Handle Tables. Sharing Kernel Objects. Object Reference Counting. Security.

Exceptions and Interrupts.

Exception Handling.

Global Flags. Summary.

2. Processes and Threads.

The Job Object.

Job Specifics. Accounting Information. Limits. User Interface Restrictions. Security.


Where RestrictRun Isn't Implemented. Calling CreateProcess(). Kernel Process Objects (the EPROCESS Block). User Mode Data Structures (the Process Environment Block).

Threads. Summary.

3. Security Model.

Securing Objects.

SIDs. Access Control Lists (ACLs). Assigning and Inheriting ACLs and ACEs. SD/ACL/ACE Summary. Tokens. Privileges and User Rights. SYSTEM Context. Impersonation. Restricted Tokens. Token Security. Moving On.

Components 67.

The Security Reference Monitor (SRM). The Local Security Authority (LSA). WINLOGON.EXE. Graphical Identification and Authentication (GINA). Network Logon Service. Security Packages. SSPI. SAM Database. Active Directory.

The Flow of a User Logon. Summary.

4. NTFS 5.0 77.

The Master File Table (MFT). Files . Streams.

Named and Unnamed Streams. Uses of Multiple Streams. Sparse Streams. Compressed Streams. Encrypted Streams.

Metadata. Hard Links. Reparse Points. Quotas. Summary.

5 - Services.

What Is a Service? Service Control Manager (SCM).

Remote Connections to the SCM. Service Logon. Recovery.

Service Object Security. Service Startup. Multiple Services in One Process.

Security Implications.

General Service Security Considerations.

Use of Discrete Accounts. What About Impersonation? Audit, Audit, and Audit! Don't Interact! One at a Time, Please.

Service Security Considerations for Programmers.

Accepting Messages. Not Accepting Stop Requests. Accepting Pause and Continue Messages. Odd Message Behavior.


6 - Drivers.

Windows 2000 I/O Model. Kinds of Drivers. The File System Stack of Drivers. Kernel Mode Memory.

Kernel Memory and Paging. Memory Available to Kernel Processes.

Coding Secure Drivers.

Checking Your Buffer Lengths. Not Returning Uninitialized Data to User Mode. Probing When Necessary. Using Try/Except Blocks. Being Aware of I/O Requests with Embedded Pointers. Being Able to Handle Zero Length Buffer. Direct I/O Double-Mapping Issues. Carefully Reading the DDK. Thinking Like the Enemy.

Driver Signing. Malicious Drivers.

What's Installed?



7. The NetBIOS, NetBEUI, SMB, and TCP/IP Protocols.

History of TCP/IP. The TCP/IP Suite. The TCP/IP Protocol Stack. Transport-Level Protocols.

Transmission Control Protocol. User Datagram Protocol. Internet Protocol. Internet Control Message Protocol. Internet Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP). Internet Group Management Protocol. Address Resolution Protocol.

Application-Level Protocols. NetBIOS Interface.

NetBIOS Name Management. NetBIOS Datagrams. NetBIOS Sessions. File Transfer Protocol. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Hypertext Transfer Protocol.

NetBEUI. Server Message Block (SMB). IP Addressing.

Multi-Homed Computers. Address Classes.

Name Resolution.

Host Name Resolution. Host Name Resolution Using a HOSTS File. Domain Names System.

TCP/IP Improvements.

Large Window Support. Selective Acknowledgements. Roundtrip Time Estimation (RTT). TCP Timestamps (RFC 1323). PMTU (Path Maximum Transmission Unit) Discovery. Dead Gateway Detection. TCP Retransmission Timers. TCP Keep-Alive Messages. Slow-Start Algorithm and Congestion Avoidance. Silly Window Syndrome (SWS). Nagle Algorithm. TCP Timed-Wait Delay. Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU).

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

User Class Support. Multicast Support. Rogue DHCP Server Detection. Fault Tolerance. DHCP Client Support.

Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation. Quality of Service.

RSVP QOS Service. Diff-Serve Class of Services.

TCP/IP Troubleshooting Tools and Strategies.

IPConfig. Ping. arp. Tracert. Route. Netstat. NBTStat. Nslookup. Microsoft Network Monitor.


8. Cryptography.

History of Cryptography.

Cryptography and the Government. Export Restrictions. The Clipper Chip. Key Escrow and Key Recovery.

Keys and Key Length. Types of Encryption.

Private Key Cryptography. Public Key Cryptography.

Common Encryption Algorithms.

The Data Encryption Standard (DES). Hash Algorithms. RSA. Diffie-Hellman. Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA).

Applications that Use Encryption.

Messaging. Web Servers. Virtual Private Networks. Mobile Phones . Windows 2000.

Future of Cryptography. Summary.

9. Introduction to IPSec.

What's a VPN and Why Would You Use One? Common Information Security Issues.

Network “Sniffing”. Data Integrity. Password (Dictionary) Attacks. Denial of Service (DoS) Attack. Man-in-the-Middle Attack. Spoofing.

IPSec: The Standards-based Solution to IP Security.

IPSec Protocol Types. Encapsulating Security Payload. Internet Security Key Association Key Management Protocol. (ISAKMP/Oakley).

The IPSec Model. Tunneling.

ESP Tunnel Mode. AH Tunnel Mode. L2TP and IPSec. IPSec: Protection Against Attacks. Public Key Cryptography.


10. PKI.

Certificate Authorities.

Certificate Authority Hierarchies.

Digital Certificates.

Generating a Key Pair. Issuing a Certificate. X.509 Certificates . Certificate Revocation Lists.

PGP “Web of Trust”. Digital Signatures. Windows 2000 and Public-Key Infrastructure.

Windows 2000 PKI Components. The Windows 2000 PKI Interoperability. Windows 2000 Certificate Services. Deploying an Enterprise CA Using Microsoft Certificate Services. Using Keys and Certificates.

Why Use PKI with Windows 2000?

Web Server Security. Secure Email. Encrypting File System. IP Security (IPSec).


11. Kerberos Protocol.

Concepts of Kerberos.

Shared Secrets. Multiple Authentication.

Kerberos Components in Windows 2000.

Key Distribution Center (KDC). Account Database. Kerberos Security Support Provider. DNS Name Resolution. Physical Security.

What Does Kerberos Do for Windows 2000?

NT LAN Manager Logon. Single Sign-On (SSO).

Windows 2000 Authentication Process.

Using Network Resources from a Different Domain. Transitive Trusts. Network Performance. Credential Cache. Shortcut Trusts. Network Security.

What Makes Kerberos Tick?

Expired Tickets. Ticket Lifetimes. Kerberos Ticket Fields. Kerberos Ticket Flags. Forwardable/Forwarded Tickets. Renewable Tickets. Delegation of Authentication. Proxy Tickets. Kerberos Protocol Extensions.

Administration of Kerberos.

Configurable Policies. Why Change Kerberos Default Policies? Kerberos Information on the Client.


12. X.500/LDAP.

Kery. eping Track of Information About the Network. What Is X.500?

The Directory Information Base and the Directory Information Tree. The Directory User Agent. The Directory System Agent. Open System Protocols for Directories.


LDAP, a Protocol. LDAP, an API.

Objects and Attributes.

Object Classes. What Is Inheritance? What Are Attributes?

The Directory Schema.

LDAP Operational Attributes. Naming Objects in the Directory.



13. Networking Model.

Networking Windows 2000: What's New. Windows DNA. Active Directory.

Active Directory Services. DNS and Active Directory.

Network Services.

Windows 2000 Core: Network Services. Protocol Stacks.

Communication Services and APIs.

Windows Sockets. Named Pipes. NetBIOS. WinInet. RPC. COM/DCOM. COM+.

Security in Windows 2000 Networks.

IP Security. Authentication. SSPI. CryptoAPI. Certificate Server. VPN. EFS.


14. Active Directory Services.

The Directory. Active Directory Components.

Objects. Domains.

Active Directory Open Design.

X.500 Overview. LDAP.

Concepts of Active Directory.

Schema. Global Catalog. Namespace.

Naming Conventions in Active Directory.

Distinguished Name. Relative Distinguished Name. User Principal Name.


Universal Groups. Global Groups. Domain Local Groups. Local Groups.

Active Directory Reliance.

Replication. Replication Protocols. Multimaster Replication. FSMO.


Server Roles.

Interoperability. Active Directory Engine Components.

Database Structure. Active Directory Database Files.

Tools from the Windows 2000 Resource Kit. Summary.

15. Authentication.

New Protocols. The Key Element of Authentication-the User! The Windows 2000 Security Subsystem.

Local Security Authority. Security Account Manager and Active Directory. Security Reference Monitor.

The Logon Process.

Logon Steps. The General Logon Sequence. Authentication Procedure.

Understanding NTLM.

The NTLM Versions in Use. LM Versus NTLM. Verify Which Version You Are Using. Setting LM Compatibility Values in the Registry.

The Risks of Using NTLM.

Using L0phtCrack. Using Network Packet Sniffers.

Understanding SSL/TLS.

Understanding the Public-Key Process .


16. SSPI.

Secure Networking Through the SSPI.

SSPI and Windows 2000 Security Model. SSPI and Security Packages.

Developing Secure Applications. Package Management API.

EnumerateSecurityPackages. QuerySecurityPackageInfo.

Credential Management API

AcquireCredentialsHandle. FreeCredentialsHandle. QueryCredentialsAttributes.

Context Management API.

InitializeSecurityContext. AcceptSecurityContext. CompleteAuthToken. DeleteSecurityContext. QueryContextAttributes. ApplyControlToken. ImpersonateSecurityContext. RevertSecurityContext. ExportSecurityContext and ImportSecurityContext.

Message Support API.

MakeSignature. VerifySignature. EncryptMessage. DecryptMessage.


17. CryptoAPI.

Secure Communication. Cryptography and CryptoAPI.

Signatures and Hashes. Certificates. Cryptographic Algorithms. Cryptographic Service Providers.

CryptoAPI Administration. Enabling Cryptography in Your Applications.

CryptoAPI Functional Areas. Encryption Example. Decryption Example. Encrypting Messages. Decrypting Messages.


18. Microsoft Certificate Services.

General Overview of Certificate Usage. Public-Key Cryptography.

How Public-Key Cryptography Works. Public-Key Cryptography Versus Symmetric-Key Cryptography. Possible Problems with Public-Key Crypto Systems.

Digital Certificates.

What Is a Certificate? X.509 Certificate Format. PKCS 7. PKCS 10.

Certificate Authorities and Public-Key Infrastructures.

Issuing Certificates. Renewing Certificates. Revoking Certificates and Publishing a Certificate Revocation List. PKIs.

The Certificate Services.

How It Works. Planning Deployment of Your PKI.

Installing Certificate Services. Administering a CA.

MMC Administration. Command-Line Administration.



RPC, COM, DCOM, COM+: What's the Difference?

Evolution of COM. Security in RPC. Security in COM/DCOM: the Legacy of RPC. Security in COM+: COM+ = COM + MTS.

Administering COM+ Security.

Configuring COM Security. Configuring COM+ Security.

Programmatic Implementation of COM+ Security Features.

Initialization of the Security. IClientSecurity. IServerSecurity. Helper Functions Provided by COM. Programmatic Role-Based Security. Delegation and Cloaking .

How to Write Secure N-Tier Applications. Summary.

20. VPNs.

Why Use a VPN?

Intranets and Extranets. Internet Security Issues. VPN Capabilities. Types of VPNs.

VPNs and Windows 2000.

VPN Protocols 456. Connecting Using a Windows 2000 VPN.

Configuring the VPN Client. Managing the VPN Server. Summary.

21. EFS.

EFS Concepts.

Data Encryption Standard Exclusive (DESX). EFS Platform Support.

EFS Architecture. How EFS Uses PKI. Certificate Services. Encryption Process. Decryption Process.

Recovery Process.

Using EFS.

Encrypting Files or Directories. Backing Up Encrypted Files and Folders. Command-Line Tools. How to Enable and Disable EFS. Saving Encrypted Files in the Network. Best Practices for Using EFS.



Domain Name System.

History of DNS. DNS. The DNS Heirarchy. Installing Windows 2000 Server's DNS Server. Configuring DNS.

Dynamic DNS.

Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP). How DHCP Works. DHCP Security Issues. Using Dynamic DNS in a Windows 2000 Environment.

Security Issues with DNS.

A Secure DNS Implementation (Split DNS).

WINS (Windows Internet Name Service) and Windows 2000.

What Does WINS Provide? NetBIOS Node Types. Elements of a WINS Network. Security Issues with WINS.



23. Secure Computing Practices.

Social Engineering.

Awareness, Policy, and Training.

Trojan Programs.

Distribution. “Wait-and-See” Trojan Programs. Mitigating the Trojan Threat. The Principle of Least Privilege.

Switching Between Privileged and Non-Privileged Contexts.

su Is Hard to Do (in NT 4 at Least). Secondary Logon Service (SLS). Secondary Logon Issues. The Process Start Problem. Terminal Services. Secondary Logon Use.

Other Secure Practices. Summary.

24. Building and Administering a Secure Server.

Creating the Secure Server.

Using Different Servers for Different Services. Choosing Hardware Carefully and Keeping It Secured. Do You Need to Start with a Fresh Install? Using NTFS. What About the Encrypting File System (EFS)? Unnecessary Services or Components. Unnecessary Programs.

Managing Auditing and Creating Resource Access Permissions.

Setting Up the Auditing Policy. Enabling Auditing. Setting Up Events to Audit for Files and Folders. Setting Up Events to Audit for Printers. Viewing Auditing Events.

What About System Services? The Security Configuration Tools .

What Are Group Policies? Using the Group Policy Snap-In. Using Security Templates. Other Security Template Options. Using Security Templates to Analyze a System. Using Security Templates to Configure a System. What Is SECEDIT?


25. Security with High-Speed Full-Time Connections.

Dial-Up Connections. Enter Broadband. So, What to Do?

“Firewall-in-a-Can” Solutions. Host-Based Solutions.

Network Address Translation (NAT).

What NAT Does. Enabling Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) in Windows 2000 Server. Security Implications of NAT.

General Broadband Security Tips. Summary.

26. Detecting and Reacting to Intrusions.

Why You Need an Intrusion Response Team. Building an Intrusion Response Team.

IRT Charter. Keeping in Touch.

Detecting Intrusions.

Overt Evidence. Strange Network Behavior. Watch Your Logs.

Reacting to Intrusions.

Don't Panic. Assemble Your Team and Prepare for Action. Analyze the Situation. Gather Evidence. Neutralize the Threat. Forensic Analysis. Reporting Intrusions. Following Up an Intrusion.


27. Recent Issues Explored.

Why You Will Never Be Completely Secure.

A Recent Example-Distributed Denial-of-Service Attacks. Another Recent Example-Data Compromises. New Protocols and New Software-New Avenues of Attack.

Keeping Track of New Security Issues from Microsoft.

Keeping Current with Service Packs and Hot Fixes. Using Windows Update.

Reviewing Applications Regularly. Keeping Educated.

What Is NTBugTraq? Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams (FIRST). The Systems Administration, Networking Security (SANS) Institute. The Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT). Windows 2000 Magazine. The Firewalls Mailing List. Computer Operations, Audit and Security Technology (COAST). Federal Computer Incidence Response Capability.

Educating Your User Community. Checking Your Servers Regularly.

Windows Event Viewer and Application Log Files. Watching for SNMP and RMON Traps and Events.


28. Penetration Testing: Hack Your Own System.

Why Penetration Testing? Thinking As a Cracker. Realizing Threats.

Remote Versus Local Threats. External Versus Internal Threats.

Tiger Teams. External Consultants. Getting Prepared for a Penetration Test. Generating an Attack Plan.

Plan Layout. Permission Statement.

Scouting the Site.

Local. Remote.

Collating and Evaluating Findings

Generating a Map. Examining Open Ports and Services. Examining Exploits for Possible Holes. Vendor Security Sites. Gray Hat Sites.

Exploiting the Site.

Possible Severities. Actively Attacking. Common Types of Exploits.

Reporting and Regimen.

Defining Threat Levels. Generating an Executive Report. Avenues of Repair. Defining Problem Areas. Setting a Penetration Testing Regimen.

Available Tools.

Commercial Products. Security Community Products.


29. Writing Secure Code.

Secure Coding Practices.

Why Should I Write Secure Code? Where Do Security Problems Arise? What Can I Do About All of This?

Software Security Explained.

Giving Your Software Least Privileges. Checking All Return Codes. Avoiding Making Assumptions. Testing Your Code. Failing Closed. Being Paranoid.

Programming Problems Explained.

Lack of Security Awareness. Poor Code Design. Poor Code Testing. Not Anticipating Possibilities. Overly Complex Code. Overly Simple Code. Poor Input Checking. Poor Bounds Checking. Race Conditions.

Auditing Code.

The Audit Process.

Resolving Problems in Code.

When You Have the Code. When You Do Not Have the Code. Tools to Help You.

Buffer Overflows.

What Is a Buffer Overflow? Buffer Overflow Example. Exploiting the Buffer Overflow. Closing the Buffer Overflow Hole.

Language-Specific Implementations.

Visual C++. Visual Basic. Java Security. Perl.

Web Application Programming Security.

CGI/Perl. SSI and Other Web Page Parsing Embedded Languages. ASP.




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