Juniper Networks® creates and deploys high-performance routing platforms used by many of the world's largest service providers. Written by the leading experts and technical writers at Juniper Networks, the Juniper Networks® Field Guide and Reference is the definitive practical guide and reference to Juniper Networks hardware and software. This comprehensive book culls and condenses nearly six thousand pages of technical documentation, field alerts, technical FAQs, and more into a single convenient and accessible resource. It provides essential information for anyone designing, building, installing, configuring, and operating scalable IP networks.
You will find in-depth information about JUNOS software, Juniper Networks routers, system management, interfaces, security, and VPNs. All the latest Juniper Networks technologies and releases are covered, including JUNOS 5.4, the T640 routing node and the T320 router, and all M-series routers. Other topics covered include:
In addition, this pragmatic guide features sample configurations that come directly from the Juniper Networks testing labs, as well as a summary of all the critical JUNOS software monitoring commands.
Whether you work with Juniper Networks products as a network engineer, administrator, or operator—or if you are just interested in learning how to build scalable multivendor IP networks—you will want to keep this thorough resource close at hand.
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Sample Chapter 8
List of Figures.
List of Tables.
1. Juniper Networks.
Juniper Networks Markets.
Internet and E-mail Contact Information.
Routing Protocol Process.
SNMP and MIB II Processes.
Supported Networking Standards.
Flexible PIC Concentrators.
Physical Interface Cards.
Cable Management System.
T640 Internet Routing Node.
T320 Internet Router.
M160 Internet Router.
M40e Internet Router.
M40 Internet Router.
M20 Internet Router.
M5 and M10 Internet Routers.
Preparing for Installation.
Power and Grounding Cable Requirements.
Network Cable Requirements.
Site Wiring Guidelines.
Fiber-Optic Connection Guidelines.
Unpacking the Router.
Installing the Router.
Initially Configuring the Software.
Installing the Software.
Upgrading Software Packages.
Upgrading Individual Software Packages.
Basic Software Setup.
Configuring User Accounts.
Configuring Login Classes.
Configuring User Authentication.
Using the CLI.
CLI Screen Output.
Filtering Screen Output.
CLI Operational Mode.
Setting the Date and Time.
Displaying CLI Command History.
Monitoring Who Uses the CLI.
Controlling the CLI Environment.
CLI Configuration Mode.
Configuration Statements and Identifiers.
How the Configuration Is Stored.
Entering and Exiting Configuration Mode.
Moving among Levels of the Hierarchy.
Displaying the Current Configuration.
Creating and Modifying the Configuration.
Running Operational Mode CLI Commands from Configuration.
Displaying Configuration Mode Command History.
Verifying and Committing a Configuration.
Saving a Configuration to a File.
Loading a Configuration.
Returning to a Previously Committed Configuration.
Adding Comments in a Configuration.
System Management with SNMP.
Management Information Base.
JUNOS SNMP Agent Features.
System Logging for SNMP Traps.
Configuring System Information.
Configuring the SNMP Community String.
Configuring SNMP Trap Options.
Configuring the Interfaces on Which SNMP Requests are Accepted.
Configuring MIB Views.
Tracing SNMP Activity.
JUNOS Interface Terminology.
Configuring Interfaces on the Router.
Configuring Physical Interface Properties.
Configuring Logical Interface Properties.
Configuring Family and Address Interface Properties.
Configuring ATM Interfaces.
Configuring E1 and E3 Interfaces.
Configuring Encryption Interfaces.
Configuring Ethernet Interfaces.
Configuring Ethernet Physical Interface Properties.
Configuring 802.1Q VLANs.
Configuring Static ARP Table Entries.
Configuring the Management Ethernet Interface.
Configuring the Internal Ethernet Interface.
Configuring Aggregated Ethernet Interfaces.
Configuring Frame Relay.
Configuring the Loopback Interface.
Configuring Multilink Interfaces.
Configuring Multilink Properties.
Configuring Physical and Logical Multilink Interfaces.
Configuring SONET/SDH Interfaces.
Configuring SONET/SDH Physical Interface Properties.
Configuring the Media MTU.
Configuring the Clock Source.
Configuring Receive and Transmit Leaky Bucket Properties.
Damping Interface Transitions.
Configuring Interface Encapsulation.
Configuring Aggregated SONET/SDH Interfaces.
Configuring T1 and T3 Interfaces.
Configuring Tunnel Interfaces.
Configuring a Unicast Tunnel.
Configuring a Multicast Tunnel.
Configuring a VPN Tunnel for Route Table Lookup.
Configuring a VPN Tunnel for VRF Table Lookup.
Configuring PIM Tunnels.
Configuring Channelized Interfaces.
Configuring Channelized DS-3 to DS-0 Interfaces.
Configuring Channelized DS-3 to DS-1 Interfaces.
Configuring Channelized E1 Interfaces.
Configuring Channelized OC-12 Interfaces.
Configuring Channelized OC-3 and STM-1 Interfaces.
Configuring Class of Service (CoS).
Defining Code-Point Aliases.
Configuring Forwarding Classes.
Classifying Packets by Behavior Aggregate Class.
Configuring Scheduling Policy Maps.
Configuring RED Drop Profiles.
Rewriting Packet Header Information.
Configuring CoS-Based Forwarding.
Configuring IPSec Global and Proposal Properties.
Configuring Security Associations.
Configuring Dynamic Security Associations.
Configuring an IPSec Proposal.
Configuring an IPSec Policy.
Comparison of Routing Policies and Firewall Filters.
Routing Policy Framework.
Configuring Routing Policy.
Defining Routing Policies.
Applying Routing Policies.
Applying Routing Policies to the Forwarding Table.
Configuring AS Path Regular Expressions.
Configuring Prefix Lists and Route Lists.
Configuring Route Lists.
Configuring the AS Path Prepend Action.
Configuring BGP Route Flap Damping.
Configuring Per-Packet Load Balancing.
Configuring Firewall Filters.
Applying Firewall Filters to Interfaces.
Configuring Filter-Based Forwarding.
Configuring Traffic Sampling and Forwarding 3.
Configuring Per-Flow Load Balancing Information.
Configuring Traffic Sampling Output Files.
Tracing Traffic Sampling Operations.
Configuring Flow Aggregation (cflowd).
Configuring Port Mirroring.
Routing Protocols Concepts.
Creating Routing Tables.
Configuring Static, Aggregate, and Generated Routes.
Specifying Policy with Aggregate and Generated Routes.
Configuring Martian Addresses.
OSPF Routing Algorithm.
Tracing RIP Protocol Traffic.
Multicast Protocols Overview.
PIM Packet Formats.
DVMRP Packet Formats.
Tracing IGMP Protocol Traffic.
SAP and SDP.
SAP and SDP Packets.
Configuring SAP and SDP.
Configuring MSDP Peers.
Configuring Multicast Scoping.
IPv6 Packet Headers and Addressing.
Configuring Firewall Filters.
Configuring Routing Policy.
Creating IPv6 Routing Tables.
Configuring IPv6 Routing Protocols.
IPv4-to-IPv6 Transition Mechanisms.
Dual IP Layer.
Traffic Engineering Components.
Types of LSPs.
Flexible LSP Calculation and Configuration.
Routers in an LSP.
How a Packet Travels along an LSP.
Constrained-Path LSP Computation.
Advertising LSPs into IGPs.
IP and MPLS Packets on Aggregated Interfaces.
MPLS Applications for Traffic Engineering.
MPLS and Routing Tables.
MPLS and Traffic Protection.
Per-Prefix Load Balancing.
Automatic Bandwidth Allocation.
Configuring MPLS-Signaled LSPs.
Configuring the Ingress Router for MPLS-Signaled LSPs.
Configuring LDP Tunneling.
Using Fate Sharing to Configure Alternate Backup Paths.
Configuring MPLS over GRE Tunnels.
Configuring Static LSPs.
Configuring Explicit-Path LSPs.
Configuring Miscellaneous MPLS Properties.
Popping the Label on the Ultimate-Hop Router.
Configuring Traffic Engineering for LSPs.
Configuring MPLS to Gather Statistics.
Controlling MPLS System Log Messages and SNMP Traps.
Tracing MPLS Protocol Packets and Operations.
Configuring RSVP Aggregation.
Configuring the RSVP Hello Interval.
Configuring RSVP Authentication.
Reserving Bandwidth on an Interface.
Configuring RSVP Timers.
Preempting RSVP Sessions.
Tracing RSVP Protocol Traffic.
Configuring RSVP and MPLS.
Configuring the LDP Hello Interval.
Configuring the LDP Hold Time.
Configuring the LDP Keepalive Interval.
Configuring the LDP Keepalive Timeout.
Configuring LDP Route Preferences.
Popping the LDP Ultimate-Hop Router.
Filtering Inbound and Outbound LDP Labels.
Enabling LDP over LSPs Established by RSVP.
Configuring the Transport Address Used by LDP.
Configuring LDP Egress Policy.
Configuring FEC Deaggregation.
Configuring LDP to Use the IGP Route Metric.
Tracing LDP Protocol Traffic.
Configuring Layer 2 Switching Cross-Connects.
Configuring MPLS LSP Tunnel Cross-Connects.
Configuring LSP Stitching Cross-Connects.
Configuring Layer 2 VPNs.
Configuring Layer 3 VPNs.
Configuring Policy for the PE Router's VRF Table.
Configuring VPN Routing between the PE and CE Routers.
Configuring Layer 3 VPN Tunnel Interfaces.
Class of Service.
Generic IP Multicast Information.
Layer 2 VPNs.
Layer 3 VPNs.
IP Security (IPSec).
ATM Interface Configuration.
Basic BGP Configuration.
BGP Routing Policy.
Route Flap Damping.
Export Static Routes.
Interface-Level Hello Authentication.
Layer 3 VPN Configurations.
When I wrote the first Juniper Networks software manual in the early summer of 1997, it was about 250 pages. When we shipped JUNOS Release 3.2 in March 1999, the JUNOS manual was just shy of 1,000 pages. I was dismayed at the prospect of having the manual be in two books and asked the development engineers to stop writing code. Of course, they didn't honor my request. At the time of this writing, the JUNOS 5.3 documentation set is 5,700 pages in 13 separate volumes. Similarly, the hardware documentation set has grown from a single 120-page manual to more than 250 pages of documentation for each of six platforms.
When our long-time publishing consultant, Patrick Ames, suggested that we might want to create a small field guide for installing, configuring, and operating Juniper Networks routers, I thought it would be nice to return to a world in which we could document the product in under a thousand pages. We created a small team of technical documentation writers and editors--Gary Drenan, Cris Morris, Patrick Ames, and myself--and together we sifted the contents of all the JUNOS and hardware documentation, extracting the material that we felt was essential for understanding the mission of Juniper Networks and for understanding our hardware and software products. (We felt this was a more prudent method than simply removing all the vowels or deleting all the verbs.)
This book is the result of our extracting and condensation process. We begin with a brief overview of Juniper Networks the company, describing our markets, services, and offerings. While much of this exists on the Web site--and we recommend you get the most updated material there--we felt that the book should provide some background about the company itself.
Chapter 2, JUNOS Internet Software Overview, presents the big picture view of the JUNOS software. This chapter is short not by design, but because the JUNOS architecture has always been straightforward, clear, and succinct. In Chapter 3, Juniper Network Hardware Overview, our senior hardware writer Gary Drenan has worked diligently not only to review all the components and specifications of both the M-series and new T-series routers, but also to collect and collate it in one place. In creating Chapter 4, Router installation and JUNOS Setup, Gary has similarly collected everything about installation, from unpacking the crate to getting the router up and running in the network.
Chapters 4 through 12 are concerned with configuring the router and describing the feature set of the JUNOS Internet software. Beginning with Chapter 5, CLI and System Management, our senior editor Cris Morris efficiently describes how to work with the software. The following chapters detail interfaces and Class of Service (in Chapter 6), IPv6 (in Chapter 7), and IPSec (in Chapter 8). Chapters 9 and 10 get to the heart of IP networking, discussing routing policy and firewall filters, and routing and routing protocols, respectively.
Chapter 11 looks at MPLS applications, Chapter 12 at virtual private networks (VPNs), and Chapter 13 provides sample configurations that come directly from the Juniper Networks testing labs. We conclude the book with a useful, tabular summary of all the critical JUNOS Internet software monitoring commands (I suspect these might turn out to be the most dog-eared pages of your field guide). Finally, we include a glossary of the many Juniper Networks-specific acronyms and terms so you don't have to try to memorize them all.
While we have tried to summarize the Juniper Networks hardware and software features in this field guide, there will undoubtedly be places where the information is insufficient for your needs. Please refer to Appendix A in this book that lists additional resources. Also remember that you can always find a full and complete discussion in the Juniper Networks technical product documentation.
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