This book provides an introduction to naming and directory technologies and an overview of the Java Naming and Directory Interface™ (JNDI). The tutorial in this book progresses from the most basic to advanced JNDI capabilities and techniques, including more than 200 working examples that demonstrate writing, compiling, and running directory-enabled Java™ programs. In addition, this book contains a comprehensive reference section that documents all JNDI classes and interfaces.
JNDI enables programs written in the Java programming language to access naming and directory services—a vital element of the complex distributed computing environment for today's enterprise systems. A platform-independent interface, JNDI allows Java applications to work with standard and proprietary services from a variety of vendors—including the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Novell Directory Service (NDS), Microsoft Active Directory, and the Solaris™ Operating Environment Network Information Service (NIS)—so that enterprises need not lock into a single-vendor solution.
Specific topics covered include:
All developers using the Java programming language to write applications or subsystems that access naming and directory services will find this book an indispensable resource.
List of Figures.
List of Tables.
Lesson 1 Naming and Directory Concepts.
Lesson 2 JNDI Overview.
Lesson 3 Examples.
Lesson 4 Common Problems (and Their Solutions.
Lesson 5 Preparations.
Lesson 6 Naming Operations.
Lesson 7 Directory Operations.
Lesson 8 What's in a Name?
Lesson 9 Environment Properties
Lesson 10 Event Notification
Lesson 11 URLs
Lesson 12 Federation
Lesson 13 Miscellaneous
Lesson 14 Storing Objects in the Directory
Lesson 15 State Factories
Lesson 16 Reading Objects from the Directory
Lesson 17 Object Factories
Lesson 18 Representation in the Directory
Lesson 19 Comparison of the LDAP and JNDI Models
Lesson 20 Security
Lesson 21 Miscellaneous
Lesson 22 Searches
Lesson 23 Referrals
Lesson 24 Schema
Lesson 25 Controls and Extensions
Lesson 26 Frequently Asked Questions
Lesson 27 The Big Picture
Lesson 28 The Ground Rules
Lesson 29 The Essential Components
Lesson 30 Adding Directory Support
Lesson 31 Adding URL Support
Lesson 32 Adding Federation Support
Lesson 33 Miscellaneous
This book teaches you how to write directory-enabled Java™ applications by using the Java Naming and Directory Interface™ (JNDI). It is divided into two parts: a tutorial and a reference.
It is intended as a tutorial and reference only for the JNDI and not for the rest of the Java Platform. For a tutorial-style presentation of the class libraries in the rest of the Java Platform, see The Jav™ Tutorial and The JFC Swing Tutorial, by Mary Campione and Kathy Walrath, and The Java™ Tutorial Continued, by Mary Campione, Kathy Walrath, Allison Huml, and the Tutorial team. For a reference-style presentation of the class libraries in other parts of the Java Platform, see The Java™ Class Libraries books by Patrick Chan, Rosanna Lee, and Douglas Kramer. This book also does not explain any part of the Java programming language. Several books are available for learning the language. These include The Java™ Programming Language, by Ken Arnold and James Gosling, and The Java™ Language Specification, by James Gosling, Bill Joy, and Guy Steele.
Following is an overview of this book.
The first part of this book is a tutorial. It is modeled after The Java Tutorial, by Mary Campione and Kathy Walrath.
The tutorial consists of six trails-programming lessons grouped together by topic. To learn about a certain topic, go to the Table of Contents, decide which trail meets your needs, and go through the lessons in that trail. For example, if you are interested in writing a service provider, select the Building a Service Provider trail.
You can read the tutorial sequentially or select trails in any order. However, some of the beginner trails are prerequisites for the more advanced trails.
The first page of a trail contains a high-level overview of the trail. It lists, describes, and provides references to all of the lessons on the trail. It also provides a detailed table of contents of the lessons in the trail.
Each lesson begins with an introduction to the material in the lesson. Most lessons contain many examples. Trying the examples as you go along will help you to understand the concepts discussed in each lesson.
The online version of this tutorial is filled with hyperlinks to sections inside and outside of the tutorial. In this hardcopy version of the tutorial, these hyperlinks have been handled as follows.
All of the code examples in the tutorial have been compiled and run by using the following software.
Most of the complete examples are available both online from the JNDI Web site (
http://java.sun.com/products/jndi/tutorial) and on the accompanying CD. This tutorial is located in the Tutorials/jndi directory on the CD. Each trail resides in its own directory, under which are located subdirectories for each lesson within the trail. The examples and related files used in a lesson are found in the src subdirectory of the lesson's directory. For example, the examples in the Naming Operations lesson in The Basics trail are found in the
Tutorials/jndi/basics/naming/src directory. Tools and utilities for configuring the examples are found in the directories
We strongly encourage you to try the examples that accompany this tutorial as you go along. To do that, you will need the JNDI classes and a v1.1.2 or higher version of the Java Platform software, such as the JDK software (
http://java.sun.com/products/jdk). The JDK provides a compiler that you can use to compile Java programs. It also provides an interpreter for running Java applications. To run Java applets, you can use the JDK Applet Viewer or any Java-compatible Web browser, such as the HotJava™ browser.
The complete online tutorial is available both on the accompanying CD and from the JNDI Web site. The title page of each lesson contains a URL for the corresponding lesson online.
The second part of this book is a reference. Its format is similar to a dictionary's in that it is designed to optimize the time that it takes for you to look up information about a class or class member.
The package overviews briefly describe each package and its classes. Each overview includes a general description about the package, as well as diagrams that show the inheritance hierarchy of its classes.
This part covers the alphabetical listing of the classes from the following five packages:
The classes are ordered alphabetically without regard to package. Each is described in its own chapter that contains a picture of the class hierarchy, a class description, a member summary, and descriptions for each member. Most examples for the class or items within the class are found in the tutorial part of this book.
Each chapter starts with a class diagram like that shown in Figure i. This diagram shows all of the ancestors of the class, its siblings, its immediate descendents, and any interfaces that it implements. In these diagrams, if a package name precedes a class or interface name, then the class or interface is not in the same package as the current class.
In the diagrams, the different kinds of Java entities are distinguished visually as follows:
The class or interface being described in the current chapter is shaded grey. A solid line represents extends and a dotted line represents implements.
In the class description, we describe all of the properties of the class. For example, the discussion of the properties of the
Context interface includes information on how names and environment properties are treated. Describing in one place all of a class's available properties and how they behave makes learning all of the class's capabilities much easier than if that data is scattered throughout the member descriptions.
Any terminology used in the member descriptions is introduced and described in the class descriptions. For more information at any time, you should go to the class description.
The member summary is intended to help you quickly grasp the key points of the class. It groups the members into categories that are specific to that class. For example, in the
Name interface the Update Methods category lists all methods concerning updates. It is intended as a quick summary of the class's members, so it does not contain any syntax information other than the name of the member.
As an example, following is the member summary for
Attributes. Notice that all overloads of a method or constructor share the same entry.
The member descriptions appear in alphabetical order within a class chapter regardless of what kind of method or field they are. This is done to make locating a member proceed as fast as possible.
Overloaded methods are grouped in one member description because they share very similar functionality. The different overloaded forms are typically provided as a convenience for the programmer when specifying parameters. For instance, some overloads eliminate parameters by providing common defaults. To describe overloads with missing parameters, we use a phrase of the form "if the parameter p is not specified, then it defaults to the value 3.14." Other overloads take different representations of a value. For example, one overload could take a particular parameter as an integer, whereas another could take the same parameter as a string that contains an integer.
Each member description contains some or all of the following fields.
|PURPOSE||A brief description of the purpose of this member|
|SYNTAX||The syntactic declaration of this member|
|DESCRIPTION||A full description of this member|
|PARAMETERS||The parameters accepted by this member, if any, listed in alphabetical order|
|RETURNS||The value and its range returned by this member, if any|
|EXCEPTIONS||The exceptions and errors thrown by this member, if any, listed in alphabetical order|
|Other related classes or members, if any, listed in alphabetical order|
|OVERRIDES||The method that this member overrides, if any|
|EXAMPLE||A code example that illustrates how this member is used (usually a reference to an example in the tutorial part of this book)|
Lucida Sans Typewriteris used for examples, syntax declarations, class names, method names, values, and field names. Italic is used when defining a new term and for emphasis.
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