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J2EE  Technology in Practice: Building Business Applications with the Java  2 Platform, Enterprise Edition

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J2EE Technology in Practice: Building Business Applications with the Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition

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  • Copyright 2001
  • Edition: 1st
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  • ISBN-10: 0-201-74622-0
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-74622-8

Since its introduction, The Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) has achieved remarkable success among application server providers and their customers. More than a dozen leading application server companies have announced J2EE compatible products, and over one million developers have downloaded the J2EE SDK from Sun's J2EE Web site (http://java.sun.com/j2ee).

Today, numerous enterprises face the challenge of developing distributed applications. IT professionals deal with a variety of issues: connecting dispersed users with centralized applications, building applications quickly and efficiently, and connecting heterogeneous clients and servers.

J2EE in Practice provides ten examples of ways that J2EE technology has helped leading corporations, educational institutions, and government organizations face these challenges and reap significant rewards. Chapters in this book explore how:

  • JCrew enhanced its traditional catalog sales operation using J2EE technology from Art Technology Group (ATG).
  • One of the country's largest mortgage companies, HomeSide Lending, produced innovative online lending services using the BEA WebLogic server.
  • The Borland Application Server enabled AT&T Unisource to respond quickly to demand in long-distance voice traffic routing.
  • Codexa Corporation used Brokat's GemStone/J platform to deliver information for widely dispersed financial services professionals.
  • eTapestry.com delivers applications to assist nonprofits in their fundraising using GemStone/J and Sun Microsystem's Forte for Java development environment.
  • Altura International used the HP BlueStone J2EE platform to implement the Web's first online catalog shopping portal, catalogcity.com.
  • IBM customers Honeywell and Bekins use Java technology to improve processes on the manufacturing floor and in the warehousing and delivery of large consumer products.
  • International Data Post (IDP), a service owned by seven European postal operators, brought snail mail to the Internet age using iPlanet's J2EE technology.
  • Physics research institute CERN worked with Oracle to provide electronic document handling services to over 5000 users worldwide.
  • J2EE technology helps the US Military Traffic Management Command, Freight Systems Office (FSO) manage and control costs of small package shipping.


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International Data Post Brings Snail Mail to the Internet Age with iPlanet

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Table of Contents



About the Editors.

1. A Multi-Vendor Standard for Distributed Enterprise Applications.

The Networked Economy

Why Standardize?

Why Standardize on JEE?

Why a Standard Based on Java Technologies?

Why a Book of Success Stories?

2. Overview of the JEE Technology and Architecture.

The Evolution of Distributed, Multitier Applications.

JEE Platform Architecture and Technologies.

Components and Containers.


Java Servlet Technology.

JavaServer Pages.

Enterprise JavaBeans.

JEE Standardized Services.

Application Configurations Supported by the JEE Architecture.

JEE Roles.

Things to Come.

3. J.Crew Rebuilds its Web Presence with the ATG Dynamo Suite.

Technology Evolution.

Why JEE Technology?

Problem/Opportunity Profile.

Scalability Limitations.

Personalization and Segmentation.

Cross-Channel Integration Opportunity.

Collaboration with Sun Professional Services.

Solution Analysis.

User Scenario.

Connection Pooling.

Caching Database Requests.

Dynamic, Personalized Presentation.

Multilingual Support for Expansion into New Markets.

Transaction Scenario.



Looking Forward.

4. HomeSide Deploys Electronic Lending on BEA's WebLogic JEE Server.

The Project.

The Company.

Technology Adoption.

Business Problem.


Technology Choices.

Java Technology.


Vendor Selection.

Application Architecture.

Client Tier.

Web-Server Tier.

Application-Server Tier.

Database Tier.

Data Integration.

Solution Analysis.

Enterprise JavaBeans (EJBs).

Session Maintenance

Entity Beans.


Interaction with Existing Applications.

Servlets and Java ServerPages.



Oracle Database.


Current Results.

Future Directions.

Distributed Deployment.


Lessons Learned.

5. Unisource: CostOptimized Routing Environment on the Borland AppServer.

Technology Adoption.

Business and Technological Challenges.

Business Problem.



Approaching the Challenges.

Architecture Choice.

Vendor Selection.

The Solution.

Architecture Overview.

Client Tier.

Web-Server Tier.

Application-Server Tier.

Process Tier.

Database Tier.

Life after CORE.



6. Codexa: Building a Big Bang Architecture with Brokat's GemStore JEE Server.

Codexa "Big Bang" Architecture Explodes onto the Scene.

Charting Galaxies of Financial Information.

JEE Helped Codexa Bring Order to Its Universe.

System Architecture: Layers Upon Layers.

GemStone/J Provides the Power.

JEE Provides the Tools.

Application Architecture: Billions and Billions of InfoBytes.

Data Acquisition.

Data Distribution.

Data Evaluation and Classification.

KnowledgeMQ and Filters.


The Working Solution: Codexa in Action.

Achieving the Big Bang.

Channel Neutrality.



Very High Availability.

Precision Failover.

Transparent Client Session State Persistence.

Lifecycle Management and Availability.


Codexa Through Time.

7. Java Technology Builds eTapestry.com ASP for Charities with Forte Tools.

The Project.

The Company.

Technology Adoption.

Opportunity: The Business Problem.


The Solution.

Technology Choices.

Java Technology.

Extensible Markup Language (XML).

Vendor Selection.

Application Architecture.

Client Layer.

Web-Server Layer

Application-Server Layer

Solution Analysis

Servlets and Java Server Pages.

Java Mail API.

Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI).

Java Secure Sockets Extension (JSSE).

Object-Oriented Database.

Future Directions.

Distributed Deployment.

Java Messaging Service API (JMS).

Partner Integration.

A Rich Tapestry.

8. HP Bluestone's TotaleServer at Altura International: Deploying JEE for Performance and Scalability.

The Company.

The Challenge.

The Solution.

Benefits of the HP Bluestone Implementation of JEE.

Altura Merchant Operating System.

Constructing the Altura Merchant Operating System.

Growing but not Scaling.

Sourcing a Viable Solution.

HP Bluestone TotaleServer and the JEE Specification.

TotaleServer's Universal Business Server and the JEE Specification.

Developing Applications for HP Bluestone TotaleServer.

.Deploying TotaleServer.

HP Bluestone EJB Server.

Monitoring JEE Applications.

Load Balancing.

Fault Tolerance.

Configuring the Altura Merchant Operating System Framework.

A Structure of Servlets.

The Role of XML and JSPs.

Benefits of the JEE Platform and HP Bluestone to Altura.

9. Honeywell and Bekins Succeed with IBM.

IBM and the Evolution of e-Business.

IBM Application Framework for e-Business.

The Java Platform.

IBM and the JEE Standard.

Key Java Technologies.

Application Programming Model.

Network Infrastructure.


Computing Environment.

Computing Infrastructure.

Company Vision.

JEE Technology Projects at Honeywell.

Lessons Learned.



Who is HomeDirectUSA?

Company Vision.

Initial Obstacles.

Why Java Technologies.



Shipment Tracking

Development Team.

Computing Environment.

Lessons Learned.

Maintenance and Performance.


Future Direction.

10. International Data Post Brings Snail Mail to the Internet Age with iPlanet.

Company Profile.

Hybrid Mail: The Technology Evolution.

Why JEE Technology?

Problem/Opportunity Profile: The Applet Dilemma.

Collaboration with Sun Professional Services.

Solution Analysis: The Lifecycle of a Hybrid Letter.

Future of Hybrid Mail.

A Multitiered Architecture.

A Bounty of Benefits.

11. CERN Simplifies Document Handling Using the Oracle Application Server.

EDH Application.

Why Move to JEE Technologies?

Why Use EJB?

.Why Choose Oracle JEE Products?

The EDH Component Model.

EDH Document Servlet.

EDH ServletExecutor.

Common Business Objects.

Common Input Objects.

Runtime Scenario.

Migration to EJB: First Steps.

The Currency Bean.

The Converter Bean.

Taking Stock.

The CERN Material Request.

The CERN Stores Catalog.

The Material Request Bean.

Object Relationships.

Deployment Descriptors

The Material Request Bean.

The Material Request Executor (Session) Bean.

Putting It All Together.

The Oracle Enterprise Java Engine (Oracle EJE).

Java Virtual Machine Overload.

Load Balancing.

CERN's Experience.

Expensive Entities.

Oracle EJE Accelerator.

Future Work.

12. USMTMC Overhauls Small Package Shipping with SunPS.

Global Freight Management, Military Traffic Management Command, Mission.

Technology Evolution.

Why JEE Technology?

The Small Package Application.

Collaboration with Sun Professional Services.

Solution Analysis.





This book is for the skeptics. In 1996, the skeptics thought the Java platform would have inadequate performance for Internet and intranet servers. But they were proven wrong: Thousands of scalable Java technology-based servers are now online. In 1997, the skeptics said that Sun's community consensus-building process could not compete with established standards processes to produce a viable platform. But it did--with an overwhelming groundswell. In 1998, the skeptics said the J2EE platform would be too big and complicated to implement, and that Sun would be unable to get others to adopt it. But it was widely adopted, and the design proved very powerful. In 1999, the skeptics said the J2EE platform would come out years late, that it would take too long to complete specifications, a reference implementation, and a compatibility test suite. But the J2EE platform came out right on schedule at the end of the year, with all these deliverables. In 2000, the skeptics said that vendors wouldn't take the compatibility tests seriously and would not implement the J2EE platform in their mainstream products. But they did; all the leading vendors became J2EE licensees, and a dozen vendor products have already passed the extensive J2EE compatibility test suite. In 2001, the skeptics questioned whether real enterprise applications would be implemented and deployed successfully on the J2EE platform. But they have been. This book is the proof.

This book is for the optimists--developers, engineering managers, CTOs, CEOs, and others who will have the foresight to bet their enterprise on a promising state-of-the-art platform that can put them ahead of their competition. In this book, these people will find examples that will help them design their own solutions, and case studies to demonstrate to their colleagues that J2EE is a powerful, proven platform. There have been nearly a million J2EE platform downloads from Sun since its release a year ago, not to mention thousands of customers who use J2EE-compatible products from one of the two dozen vendors that have licensed the J2EE platform to date.

This book is for those who want to better understand the J2EE platform. It demonstrates the most important feature of the platform--that it is an industry-wide initiative, with support and contributions from many companies and many people. The J2EE platform is not one product from one company. It's a standard framework around which the leading enterprise vendors are competing to build innovative, high-performance, distributed enterprise software platforms. In the pages of this book, you will find contributions from BEA, IBM, iPlanet, Oracle, and half a dozen other vendors, as well as their customers: AT&T, Bekins, CERN laboratories, the U.S. Army, and many others.

This book is for all the people who are already involved with the J2EE platform. The success of the platform is the result of outstanding work and vision from a lot of people. I would personally like to thank those people. In this book, you will read about the most important of them--the people who took the J2EE platform into the trenches to solve business problems and reap the benefits of this new technology. Their experience is enlightening. The book's editors, Rick Cattell and Jim Inscore, are ideally suited to bring these experiences to you: Jim has managed all the technical writing for the J2EE platform, and Rick was instrumental to the inception and technical architecture of the J2EE platform. We hope you enjoy reading the book as much as all these people enjoyed working with this technology.

Patricia Sueltz
Executive Vice President
Software Systems Group
Sun Microsystems, Inc.
May 2001




Abercrombie, Hank, 257, 263, 270
Abstractions, putting, into code, 105-110
Accelerators, 248, 252
ACID properties, 85, 122
ActionDescriptor component, 95
"Aiming to do nothing," principle of, 81, 98
Altura International, 157, 178-179. See also AMOS (Altura Merchant Operating System)
AMOS (Altura Merchant Operating System)
configuring, 173-178
constructing, 160-163
Apache Foundation, 147
Apache Xerces XML API, 68
Apache Web servers, 68, 147
Application Server (ATG Dynamo), 38, 43-46, 48, 49-51
Application-server tier, 66-67. 91, 97-99, 148-149
Application service providers (ASPs). See ASPs (application service providers)
Application tier, 48-49, 51
AppServer (Borland), 78-112
application-server tier and, 97-99
selection of, 89-90
solution provided by, 90-92
ART*Enterprise system, 59, 68, 69
Art Technology Group, 30
ASPs (application service providers), 50-52, 115-136, 139, 140
Asynchronous messaging, 25. See also JMS (Java Message Service)
AT&T Unisource, 79-112
ATG Dynamo suite
Application Server, 38, 43-46, 48, 49-51
basic description of, 37
caching database requests and, 46-47
Commerce Server, 38, 44, 46, 50
Global Services, 38, 41
multilingual support with, for expansion into new markets, 47-49
Personalization Server, 38, 46-47, 50
solution analysis and, 43-52
transaction scenarios and, 49-50
using, 35-54
Attributes, 20
Audit trails, 143
Authentication, 149
Automatic read-only detection, 98
Codexa Service and, 120, 133, 134-135
CORE and, 103-104
HomeSide project and, 66
jcrew.com project and, 54
lifecycle management and, 134-135
very high, 133
B2B (business-to-business) commerce
Codexa Service and, 119
eTapestry.com and, 143, 146
integration, 143
XML and, 26
Back-end applications, 195
Bank of Boston, 58
Barnhill, Lori, 259
Batch updates, 99


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