The development of the next generation of the Internet Protocol, which will allow for the continued expansion of the Internet, is one of the most significant developments in the history of the communications industry.
This book is written by members of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and others to explain the history and outcome of their efforts in developing the IPng technology. Delivered in a narrative style, the book offers an inside view of the rationale behind IPng and reveals its ramifications across a wide array of industries.
You will find reviews of the IPng proposals and an overview of the technical criteria and the resulting current IPv6 protocol. In addition, industry and technical perspectives explore the impact of IPng on such areas as military applications, cable TV, large corporate networking, and more.
Required reading for anyone in data communications, as well as corporate managers and technical professionals in nearly every field, this book will give you a broad perspective on the forces shaping the Internet and a fascinating glimpse into the coming era of communication technology.
With contributions by:
I. THE NEED FOR IPNG.
II. DEFINING THE IPNG PROCESS.The First Step.
A New Direction.
Issues Toward IPng Resolution.The IPng Directorate.
III. HOW LONG DO WE HAVE?IPv4 Address Lifetime Expectations (Frank Solensky, FTP Software, Inc.).
IV. THE ROLE OF IPNG IN COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY.Internetworking in the Navy (R. Brian Adamson, Naval Research Laboratory).
Naval Research Efforts.
NATO Communication System Network Interoperability Project.
Naval Research Laboratory’s Data/Voice Integration Advanced Technology Demonstration.
Navy Communication Support System Architecture Development.IPng Requirements and RFC-1550.
ATM Virtual Circuits.
Characteristics of ATM Service.
ATM User-Network Interface (UNI).
Parameters Required to Map IPng to ATM.IPng in Large Corporate Networks (Edward Britton, John Tavs, IBM Corporation).
Summary.Evolutionary Possibilities for the Internetwork Layer (J. Noel Chiappa).
Background and Context.
Basic Principles of Large-Scale System Design.
The Internetwork Layer Service Model.
State and Flow in the Internetwork Layer.
User and Service State.
Practical Details of Flows.
Flows and State.
Ramifications of Flows.
Conclusion.Market Viability as an IPng Criteria (John Curran, BBN Planet Corporation).
“Pushing” Internetworking Technology.
Can IPng Compete Against IPv4?
Summary.IPng and Corporate Resistance to Change (Eric Fleischman, Boeing Computer Services).
The Internet and TCP/IP Protocols Are Not Identical.
Address Depletion Doesn’t Resonate with Users.
User’s IPv4 “Itches” Need Scratching.
Motivations for Users to Deploy IPng.
User-based IPng Requirements.
Summary.High Performance Networking in the Navy (Dan Green, Phil Irey, Dave Marlow, Karen O’Donoghue, Naval Surface Warfare Center - Dahlgren Division).
Accommodation of Current Functionality.
Summary.Lessons From Other Transition Experiences (Denise Heagerty, CERN, European Laboratory for Particle Physics).
Transition and Deployment.
Configuration, Administration, and Operation.IPng Transition in Science Internetworking (Davide Salomoni, Antonia Ghiselli, Cristina Vistoli, INFN).
Application and Transport Level.
Layer 2 or Communication Infrastructure.
Transition and Deployment.An Electric Power Industry View of IPng (Ron Skelton, Electric Power Research Institute).
Utility Industry Infrastructure Needs.
National Information Infrastructure (NII) Potential.
Strategic Technology Assessment.
Engineering Considerations-Mandatory Requirements.
Engineering Considerations-Basic Requirements.
Key Engineering Considerations.Use of IPng in Combat Simulation (Susan Symington, David Wood, MITRE Corporation; J. Mark Pullen, George Mason University).
Overview of Distributed Interactive Simulation.
Specific Requirements.A Cellular Industry View of IPng (Mark Taylor, McCaw Cellular Communications, Inc.).
Support for Mobility.
Transition Capability.A Cable TV Industry View of IPng (Mario P. Vecchi, Time Warner Cable).
Cable Television Industry Overview.
V. FEATURES, TECHNOLOGIES, AND ISSUES FOR IPNG.The Advantages of Many Addresses per Host (Steven M. Bellovin, AT&T Bell Laboratories).
Accounting and Billing.
Addresses per User.
How Many Addresses Do We Need?Security Implications for IPng (Steven M. Bellovin, AT&T Bell Laboratories).
Encryption and Authentication.
Source Routing and Address-based Authentication.
Accounting.Implementing IPng on a BSD Host (Jim Bound, Digital Equipment Corporation).
Network Software Architecture.
Interprocess Communications Facility.
Network Communications Subsystem.
Network Software Alterations.
Applications Embedding IPv4 Addresses.
Transport Interfaces and Network APIs.
Socket Layer and Structures.
Network Layer Components.
Extended Capabilities with IPng.
Autoconfiguration and Autoregistration.
Transition Software.Transition and Other Critical Issues for IPng (Brian E. Carpenter, CERN).
Transition and Deployment.
Interworking at Every Stage and Every Layer.
Harmful Header Translation.
IPv4 to IPng Address Mapping.
Domain Name Service (DNS).
Smart Dual-Stack Code.
Smart Management Tools.
Multicasts, High and Low.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM).
Policy Routing and Accounting.
Security Considerations.Nimrod IPng Technical Requirements (J. Noel Chiappa).
Overview of Nimrod.
The Nimrod Subsystems of the Internetwork Layer.
Specific Interaction Issues.
General Principles for Packet Formats.
Packet Format Fields.
The Future of Routing.Routing Implications for IPng (Deborah Estrin, University of Southern California; Tony Li, Yakov Rekhter, Cisco Systems, Inc.).
Overview of the Unified Architecture.
Topological Flexibility and Support for Mobility.IPng Mobility Considerations (William Allen Simpson, Daydreamer, Independent Consultant).
VI. TECHNICAL CRITERIA FOR IPNNG.Technical Criteria for Choosing IP The Next Generation (IPng) (Craig Partridge, BBN Systems and Technologies; Frank Kastenholz, FTP Software, Inc.).
One Protocol to Bind Them All.
Live Long and Prosper.
Things We Chose Not to Require.
VII. IETF IPNG PROPOSALS.The Proposals.
Common Architecture for the Internet (CATNIP).
TCP/UDP over CLNP-Addressed Networks (TUBA).
Simple Internet Protocol Plus (SIPP).Proposal Reviews.
SIPP Reviews.Summary of Proposal Reviews.
Efficiency of Address Assignment.
Estimating Reasonable Values for the H Ratio.
The H Ratio for the Present Internet.
Evaluating Proposed Address Plans for IPng.The IPng Recommendation.
Timing of the Recommendation.
Addressing Architecture Issues.
IPng Criteria Document and IPv6.
VIII. IPV6.IPv6 Technical Overview (Robert Hinden, Ipsilon Networks; Steven E. Deering, Xerox Corporation).
Summary of Capabilities.
Overview of Features.
Security Address Autoconfiguration (Susan Thomson, Bellcore).IPv6 Transition Mechanisms Overview (Robert E. Gilligan, Sun Microsystems, Inc.; Ross Callon, Bay Networks, Inc.).
Introduction to Transition.
Overview of Dual-IP Layer Networks.
Addressing in a Dual-IP Layer Network.
Updating the Domain Name System.
Routing and Dual-IP Layer Networks.
Structuring Dual-IP Layer Networks.
Overview of Tunneling.
Automatic versus Configured Tunneling.
Default Configured Tunnel.
Tunneling and DNS.
Tunneling Implementation Issues.
Tunneling and Routing in Depth.
Host-to-Host Automatic Tunneling.
Reachability for Host-to-Router Tunnels.
Router-to-Host Automatic Tunneling.
IX. SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS.Network Security and IPv6.
Security on the Internet.
IAB Security Workshop.
Security in IPv6.
Problems Resulting from Supporting Security.
Other Security Issues.
X. THE ONGOING PROCESS.The Ongoing IETF Process.
Other Address Families.
Impact on Other IETF Families.
Impact on Non IETF Standards and on Products.
Application Program Interfaces (APIs).Afterword.
The Internet is about to become a victim of its own success.
The projection in the fall of 1991 that the Internet, with the capacity to support many millions of users, was beginning to run out of available network addresses was quite a bit of a surprise. The projection was quickly followed by numerous articles in the trade press announcing the imminent demise of what had been a promising technology.
Many groups were ready with alternatives to fix the problem. Network protocols from various official standards organizations and proprietary protocols from a number of vendors were presented as solutions that could provide a foundation for a glorious future of ubiquitous networking.
This speculation caused more than a little consternation within the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the organization responsible for keeping the standards of the TCP/IP protocol suite used by the Internet. In the face of all this "end of the world as we know it" talk, the IETF felt it needed to determine just what was truly happening, and, if there was in fact a problem, what should be done about it.
When the initial investigation confirmed the basic diagnosis, the IETF undertook a multi-pronged effort to devise a replacement for the current version of the Internet protocol, IPv4. This effort sought not just to solve the immediate address limitation and scaling problems, but to look into the Internet's future and develop a protocol that would serve its needs for many years to come.
This book offers an inside view of the process the IETF used in its successful effort to define the issues, and provides an overview of the resulting Internet Protocol next generation (IPng). Along the way, the book reveals the rationale behind the structure and features of IPng, presenting numerous explorations of applications and technologies IPng could potentially support.
Next, the book turns to the outside perspective of the wider networking community, with contributions from numerous industry experts.
Part IV explores the potential role of IPng in the future of communications, and Part V, the innovative technologies IPng should consider embracing.
Part VI contains the technical criteria for judging IPng proposals - culled from all of the preceding discussions, issues, and contributive perspectives.
The IPng proposals are presented and evaluated against the technical criteria in Part VII.
All of the preceding sections culminate in Part VIII, the overview of the selected IPng proposal, the new IPv6 Internet protocol.
In Part IX, the critical issue of security is discussed, and in Part X, the ongoing process of developing the protocol in greater detail is outlined.
We would also like to thank the many people who took the time to respond to RFC-1550 and who provided the broad understanding of the many requirements of data networking that any proposal for an IPng must address.
The members of the IESG, the IAB, and the always active participants in the various mailing lists provided us with many insights into the issues we faced. Many other individuals gave us sometimes spirited but always useful counsel during this process. They include (in no particular order) Radia Perlman, Noel Chiappa, Peter Ford, Dave Crocker, Tony Li, Dave Piscitello, Vint Cerf, and Dan Lynch.
Thanks to David Williams and Cheryl Chapman who, along with the very hard-working Addison-Wesley technical editors: Abigail Cooper and Kate Habib, took on the occasionally impossible task of ensuring that what is written here resembles English to some degree.
This book would have never happened without the perserverance and astonishingly good humor in the face of changing realities of Carol Long, our Executive Editor at Addison-Wesley.
To all the many people mentioned above and those we have skipped in our forgetfulness, thank you for making this task doable.