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IP SANS:  A Guide to iSCSI, iFCP, and FCIP Protocols for Storage Area Networks: A Guide to iSCSI, iFCP, and FCIP Protocols for Storage Area Networks

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IP SANS: A Guide to iSCSI, iFCP, and FCIP Protocols for Storage Area Networks: A Guide to iSCSI, iFCP, and FCIP Protocols for Storage Area Networks


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  • Copyright 2002
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8x9-1/4
  • Pages: 320
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-75277-8
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-75277-9

"A concise guide to an exciting new technology that is bringing SANs into mainstream IP networking."

--Jayshree Ullal, Group Vice President/General Manager, Cisco Systems

"IP SANs provides a comprehensive overview of the next-generation storage area networks, with concrete examples of how customers can deploy cost-effective and highly scalable IP storage solutions."

--Ahmad Zamer, Product Line Marketing Manager, Intel Corporation

"An essential reference for understanding the benefits that IP networking provides for SANs, including quality of service, security, and wide-area connectivity for storage."

--John L. Hufferd, Senior Technical Staff Member, IBM

IP storage and networking have traditionally resided in two distinct worlds. Networking professionals from an Internet Protocol (IP) internetworking background are usually not familiar with storage issues, and storage administrators may be unfamiliar with IP internetworking. With IP storage networking, network professionals dealing with storage area networks (SANs) now have an integrated option for improved data storage. IP SANs: A Guide to iSCSI, iFCP, and FCIP Protocols for Storage Area Networks explains these new IP technologies that enable SANs to keep up with today's networking needs, detailing the various storage solutions that are created when both disciplines are combined.

As more corporations take part in e-commerce and global data sharing, the need for more efficient data storage is increasing. SANs address this need for a more powerful means of storing and retrieving mass amounts of data. Until recently, SANs were based on the Fibre Channel technology, which, for years, has provided the industry with flexible, high-performance block data access for storage applications. However, network professionals are now looking for ways to implement SANs using the more familiar TCP/IP and Ethernet technologies. IP SANs provides an overview of these technologies, focusing on practical implementations, an understanding of existing data access paradigms, and the significant innovations of IP-based SANs. Covering the basic architecture and products, along with management strategies for professionals in IP SAN environments, this book outlines how to meet the growing data storage needs of today's marketplace.

IP SANs: A Guide to iSCSI, iFCP, and FCIP Protocols for Storage Area Networks is a targeted and timely account of the changing internetworking environment. Technology development requires both cooperation and competition. By combining storage capabilities with networking technologies, businesses will now be able to reap the benefits that only IP storage can provide.


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Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with Chapter Summary.)


1. Introduction.

2. Shared Storage.

Captive Storage.

The SNIA Shared Storage Model.

Storage Networking Layers.

Serial Transport.

Access Method.


Packetizing of Data.

Routing of Packets.

Upper Layer Protocol Support.

3. Storage Networking Building Blocks.

Storage Networking Terminology.


Just a Bunch of Disks (JBODs).

Tape Subsystems.

SCSI over IP-to-Parallel SCSI Bridges.

Host Adapters.

Legacy SCSI Cabling.

Network-Attached Storage.

Fibre Channel.

Fibre Channel Layers.

FC-0 — Fibre Channel Physical Layer.

FC-1 — Fibre Channel Link Controls and Data Encoding.

FC-2 — Fibre Channel Framing, Flow Control and Class of Service.

FC-3 — Common Services.

FC-4 — Fibre Channel Upper Layer Protocol.

Fibre Channel Topologies.

Gigabit Ethernet.

Gigabit Ethernet Layers.

802.1Q VLAN Tagging.

802.1p/Q Frame Prioritization.

802.3x Flow Control.

802.3ad Link Aggregation.

Gigabit Ethernet Physical Layer Considerations.

Assumptions for IP-based SANs.


Operating Systems and SCSI I/O.

The SCSI Architectural Model (SAM-2).


Layer 2.

Layer 2 Bridging.

Spanning Tree.

Layer 3 - IP.

IP Addressing.

Subnet Masking.

Address Resolution Protocol.

IP Routing.

IP Network Example.

IP Routers and IP Switches.

Other IP Considerations.

6. User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

Layer 4 - UDP.

Connectionless Service.

UDP Port Numbers.

UDP Header.

UDP for IP Storage Applications.

7. Transmission Control Protocol.


TCP Header.

Establishing TCP Connections.

TCP Segment Size.

TCP Sliding Window and Congestion Control.

TCP Error Recovery.

Upper Layer Interface.

8. IP Storage Networking.

Standards-based IP Storage Protocols.

The IETF and IPS Working Group.

Fibre Channel over IP (FCIP).

FCIP and Timeout Values.

FCIP SAN Interfaces.

FCIP Error Handling.

FCIP Flow Control.

FCIP Quality of Service.

FCIP Framing.

FCIP Issues.

Internet Fibre Channel Protocol - iFCP.

iFCP Network Architecture.

iFCP Addressing.

iFCP Fabric Service Emulation.

iFCP and TCP Connection Control.

iFCP Error Handling.

iFCP Security.

iFCP Issues.

Metro Fibre Channel Protocol - mFCP.

Internet SCSI - iSCSI.

iSCSI Network Architecture.

iSCSI Protocol Layering Model.

iSCSI Address and Naming Conventions.

iSCSI Session Management.

iSCSI Error Handling.

iSCSI Security.

iSCSI Issues.

9. Internet Storage Name Server.


Device Discovery in Fibre Channel.

Discovery in IP Storage Networks.

iSNS Features.

iSNS Discovery Process.

iSNS State Change Notification and Entity Status Inquiry.

iSNS Objects.

iSNS Security.

10. Security in IP Storage Networks.

Securing Storage Data Transport.

Security in Fibre Channel SANs.

Port Zoning.

World Wide Name Zoning.

LUN Masking.

Security in IP Storage Networks.

Discovery Domains.

LUN Masking.

VLAN Tagging.


Access Control Lists (ACLs).

11. QOS for IP Storage Networks.

Class of Service and Quality of Service.

802.1p Traffic Prioritization.

Type of Service (TOS).

Differentiated Services (DiffServ).

Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP).

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS).

12. Infiniband.

InfiniBand Architecture.

InfiniBand and Storage Networking.

13. IP Storage Applications.

IP Storage in Data Center Applications.

Server Clustering.

Local Tape Backup.

Storage Consolidation.

IP Storage for Remote Applications.

Remote Backup.

Remote Mirroring.


Disaster Recovery.

Content Distribution.

14. Conclusion.

Great Expectations.

Prerequisites for Successful IP Storage Deployment.

Standards Compliance.




Integration with Other Storage Technologies.

IP Storage Futures.

Appendix A. IP Storage & Related Vendors.

Appendix B. Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA).



Index. 0201752778T08092001


THE FOLLOWING WORK provides an overview of a new technology for creating storage area networks (SANs) with conventional Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and Gigabit Ethernet networking. IP-based storage networking continues the work initially started by Fibre Channel of providing flexible, high-performance block data access for storage applications. SANs have already proved their practical value in facilitating applications such as server clustering, storage consolidation, and tape backup. With continued market momentum, storage networking is expected to capture more than half the new storage deployments within the next few years.

The unique contribution of storage over IP solutions is the ability to integrate storage networking into mainstream data communications. For customers, the economies of scale provided by common infrastructure and common management make a compelling argument for the adoption of IP SANs, whereas Fibre Channel, despite the effort of certain authors, is still viewed as problematic and must be maintained as a separate network. As often happens in high-technology fields, one group of vendors breaks the very hard ground of technical issues, only to see others behind them sowing and reaping the newly tilled and now-fertile soil.

Although IP storage can leverage many of the advances made by Fibre Channel, it has its own issues to address. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is currently working on multiple protocols for transporting block data over IP networks. The IETF activity consists of ongoing discussions on the requirements of storage data over IP and a series of Internet drafts that embody the work in progress. A detailed analysis of the standards specifications for these protocols is well beyond the scope of this short book, and well beyond the endurance of its author. The IP storage technical documentation, however, is readily available on the IETF Web site listed in the bibliography. The curious reader will also find there the latest versions of standards drafts and Requests for Comments (RFCs) for auxiliary protocols such as security and quality of service, which would be quickly outdated if included here.

The scope of the following text also includes an overview of Fibre Channel technology. This is provided as a basis to appreciate the challenges of IP storage and to acquaint readers from the internetworking world with SAN concepts first aired by Fibre Channel. As with IP storage specifications, this book cannot detail Fibre Channel standards. For granular detail, the reader may reference Robert Kembel's Fibre Channel Consultant series, which includes a recent book on fabric switches, or the reader may examine the appropriate Fibre Channel standards directly. A more comprehensive overview of Fibre Channel topologies and products is also included in my previous work, Designing Storage Area Networks.

This book is intended for information technology (IT) managers, administrators, consultants, and technical staff responsible for networking and storage management. Storage and networking have traditionally resided in two distinct worlds. Typically, people from an internetworking background are not familiar with storage issues, whereas storage administrators may need to know little about IP internetworking. Storage networking is a melding of these technologies into an integrated solution. IP storage networking offers some relief to networking personnel because the interconnects, bandwidth provisioning, and transport management for IP SANs are drawn from mainstream IP networking. For storage administrators, understanding IP storage is also facilitated by the more accessible expertise within IT staff who are already familiar with the IP component of IP SANs. To satisfy readers from both worlds, this text does not assume prior knowledge of either IP networking or storage concepts. The respective readers may skim at will through material they already understand and may dwell on the passages that contain new content. Although it is difficult to write a single book for such a potentially diverse readership, it is hoped that regardless of specific technical background, the reader will in the end close the cover with an understanding of the benefits that IP storage can provide.

The particular prejudices at work throughout the text will become obvious. Fibre Channel was a pioneering technology. It was the first to develop and implement successfully in viable products a number of new capabilities that have benefited IT in general. A stable and relatively error-free switched gigabit transport, a fully functional serial protocol for block data transmission, and innovative treatment of networked servers and storage have been leveraged by IP storage vendors to accelerate the development of IP SANs. Despite the technical attributes of Fibre Channel, however, historical momentum and massive resources are on the side of IP and Gigabit Ethernet technology. Although Fibre Channel storage solutions will continue to ship in significant volumes for some time to come, the tide of storage networking will eventually turn at customer direction toward the network infrastructure that already dominates mainstream data communications. The challenge for all storage network vendors and customers alike will be to make this transition as painless as possible.


The following text provides an overview of multiple technologies that must eventually coexist within enterprise networks. Networks must necessarily maintain a medley of products as new technologies are introduced and as the most recent legacy-branded products are transitioned to less critical areas. For storage, a network may require support for direct-attached Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI) disks and tape, Fibre Channel switches and storage, and the newly introduced IP storage devices. The text therefore devotes some space to examining the attributes of each storage technology with the aim of clarifying alternatives for technology convergence.

Chapter 1 provides a historical perspective on storage issues and what problems must be resolved to achieve viable, shared storage solutions. Because the Technical Council of the Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA) has provided a general framework for understanding shared storage, Chapter 2 reviews the SNIA Shared Storage Model to position IP SANs within storage networking as a whole.

For successful deployment, storage over IP has dependencies on both legacy and current technologies. Chapter 3 examines storage networking transports and components, including SCSI and Fibre Channel, as well as the Gigabit Ethernet infrastructure on which IP storage itself resides. The foundation protocol for all storage networking solutions is provided by the SCSI Architectural Model, or SAM-2. The main features of the SCSI architecture are reviewed in Chapter 4.

Chapters 5, 6, and 7 cover IP, the User Datagram Protocol, and TCP respectively. These chapters are intended primarily for readers unfamiliar with IP concepts, although references are also made to features that affect IP SANs.

Chapter 8 examines the three IP storage protocols currently under development in the IETF. The Fibre Channel over IP (FCIP) protocol represents a Fibre Channel extension strategy and relies on IP only to connect remote Fibre Channel SANs. The Internet Fibre Channel Protocol (iFCP) maps IP addresses to Fibre Channel end nodes and enables the replacement of Fibre Channel fabrics with IP storage networking. The Internet SCSI (iSCSI) protocol enables replacement of Fibre Channel end devices with native IP storage devices, and thus represents a radical shift from current Fibre Channel deployments. These three protocols provide a spectrum of solutions, from simple Fibre Channel extension to migration to displacement.

The IP storage transport protocols are by no means the sole focus of the IETF standards initiatives. Management of IP SANs is also a critical issue. Chapter 9 reviews the Internet Storage Name Server (iSNS) protocol that has been supported by the IP storage community as a means of rationalizing discovery and management of IP storage devices and interconnects.

Two key components that have been lacking in Fibre Channel SANs are security of storage data as it traverses the network and quality of service to ensure proper delivery. Chapter 10 reviews mainstream IP security features that can be used for IP storage networks, whereas Chapter 11 examines class-of-service and quality-of-service standards and standards initiatives. These chapters validate in principle the marketing claims of IP storage vendors that IP SANs may leverage the advanced functionality already deployed for enterprise IP networks.

Although IP storage networking is generally viewed as the successor to Fibre Channel, InfiniBand has also been promoted as a homogeneous solution for everything data related. Chapter 12 provides an overview of the InfiniBand architecture and how it may integrate into IP storage solutions.

Technology development would have little purpose if it did not solve real customer problems. Chapter 13, therefore, offers application studies to demonstrate how IP storage solutions may be applied, including server cluster, storage consolidation, LAN-free and server-free tape backup, and metropolitan and wide area applications for SANs. In many respects, a diagram of an IP SAN solution for a specific application may not differ significantly from a comparable Fibre Channel SAN solution. Boxes reside in the middle, lines are drawn, boxes sit at the end. The substantive difference, however, is how easy those boxes are to acquire, deploy, manage, and maintain. In the end, the customer does not and should not have to worry about the underlying plumbing. The customer simply expects to turn on the spigot and for data to appear. If that is convenienced by IP SANs, then the mission of IP storage vendors is accomplished.

Lastly, Chapter 14 discusses new technologies in general and the inflated expectations that invariably accompany them, and then reviews the fundamental prerequisites that must be met for successful adoption of IP storage networking. IP storage has the potential to alter traditional concepts of data access at a much more fundamental level than previously viewed via Fibre Channel SANs. If IP storage is successful, storage-specific issues may gradually disappear as networked storage access becomes more ubiquitous.



Access control lists (ACLs), 135, 175-176
Access method, network, 22
ACK bit set, 106, 107, 109
Addressing, 22
iFCP, 129-131
IP, 83-85
iSCSI, 142-144
subnet masking, 85-87
Address resolution, 87
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), 87-88
Alias naming, 144
Application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), 28
ATM, 236
Authentication, 172-175


data center tape, 210-217
remote tape, 222-225
Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP), 88
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP4), 90
IP, 79-81
SCSI, 36-37


Fibre Channel, 44-45
Gigabit Ethernet, 64-65
SCSI, 39-40
Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD), 57-58
Channel adapters, 197
Cisco, 90
Classless interdomain routing (CIDR), 86
Clock and data recovery (CDR), 38, 43, 44
Command descriptor block (CDB), 76
Common Internet File System (CIFS), 17
Compaq, 193
Connectionless service, UDP, 97-99
Connection-oriented protocol, TCP as, 103
Consumers, 195-196
Content distribution, 229-230
Context switching, 76
Convergence, 89-90


Data center applications, 201
local tape backup, 210-217
server clustering, 202-210
storage consolidation, 217-220
Data encoding, Fibre Channel, 45-47
Data encryption standard (DES), 173-174
Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM), 221
Differentiated services (DiffServ) 123-124, 182-185
Digest errors, 147
Digital signatures, 174-175
Direct Access File System (DAFS), 41
Disaster recovery, 228-229
domain sets (DDSs), 157, 171-172
Fibre Channel, 154-156
iSNS, 153-157, 158-160
Disparity, running, 46-47
Distance-vector protocol, 88
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, 87


Electromagnetic interference (EMI), 44
Encryption, 173-175
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), 90
Entity status inquiry (ESI), iSNS, 160
Error handling
FCIP, 122-123
iFCP, 134-135
iSCSI, 146-148
Error recovery, TCP, 109-110
See also Gigabit Ethernet
advantages of, 2-3
Extended copy, 214-216
Eye diagrams, 44


Fabric service emulation, iFCP, 132-133
Fabric Shortest Path First (FSPF) protocol, 55, 56, 89
Fabric switches, Fibre Channel, 53-56
FCIP (Fibre Channel over IP)
error handling, 122-123
flow control, 123
framing, 124-125
issues, 125-126
quality of service, 123-124
role of, 118-119
SAN interfaces, 120-121
timeout values, 119-120
Fibre Channel
addressing, 22
cables, 44-45
class of service, 48-50
common services (FC-3), 50-51
compared with Gigabit Ethernet, 64-65
compared with IP, 94
compared with OSI model, 21
compared with SCSI, 52
data delivery (FC-2), 48-50
discovery, 154-156
frames, 48
host bus adapters, 38
Internet Fibre Channel Protocol (iFCP), 126-138
layers, 42-43
loop connections, 53-54
Metro Fibre Channel Protocol (mFCP), 138-139
ordered sets and data encoding (FC-1), 45-47
physical layer (FC-0), 43-45
purpose of, 4-5
security, 168-171
topologies, 53-56
upper layer protocol (FC-4), 51-53
Fibre Channel over IP. See FCIP
FIN bit set, 107
Firewalls, 175
Flow control
FCIP, 123
Gigabit Ethernet, 61-62
Format error, 147
Forwarding equivalence classes (FECs), 188
FCIP, 124-125
Fibre Channel, 48
Gigabit Ethernet, 58, 60-61


Gartner Group, 235
Gigabit Ethernet
cables, 64-65
compared with Fibre Channel, 64-65
compared with OSI model, 21, 57
development of, 4, 5, 56
flow control, 61-62
framing, 58, 60-61
layers, 57-59
link aggregation, 62-64
ordered sets, 47
physical layer, 57-58, 64-65
VLAN tagging, 59-60
Graphical user interface (GUI), 144


TCP, 104-105
UDP, 100
Hewlett-Packard, 193
Host bus adapters (HBAs), 37-39
Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP), 99


IBM, 46, 193, 236
iFCP (Internet Fibre Channel Protocol)
addressing, 129-131
architecture, 126-129
error handling, 134-135
fabric service emulation, 132-133
security, 135-136
TCP connection control and, 133-134
issues, 136-138
architecture, 193-196
storage networking and, 196-198
InfiniBand Trade Association (IBTA), 193
Information units (IUs), 52
Input/output (I/O), SCSI, 71-74
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
802.1p/Q frame prioritization, 60-61, 180-181
802.1Q VLAN tagging, 59-60
802.3a, 116
802.3ad link aggregation, 62-64
802.3x flow control, 61-62, 98
802.3z standard, 57, 116
Intel, 193
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) X.509 standard, 174
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), 84
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), 84, 100
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), 116-118
Internet Fibre Channel Protocol. See iFCP
Internet SCSI. See iSCSI
Interoperability issues, 240
IP (Internet Protocol)
addressing, 83-85
Address Resolution Protocol, 87-88
bridges, 79-81
compared with Fibre Channel, 94
compared with OSI model, 21
datagram, 94
Fibre Channel over IP (FCIP), 118-126
Internet Fibre Channel Protocol (iFCP), 126-138
Internet SCSI (iSCSI), 139-149
Metro Fibre Channel Protocol (mFCP), 138-139
network example, 90-92
routers and switches, 92-94
routing, 88-90
routing between multiple networks, 82-83
security, 135
spanning tree, 81-82
storage protocols, development of, 115-118
subnet masking, 85-87
IPSec, 172-175
IPS Working Group, 117
IPv4, 83-84, 85
IPv6, 83, 86-87
iSCSI (Internet SCSI)
addressing and naming conventions, 142-144
architecture, 140-141
error handling, 146-148
issues, 148-149
login phase, 144
protocol layering model, 141-142
role of, 139-140
security, 148
session management, 144-146
iSNS (Internet storage name server)
discovery, 153-157, 158-160
features, 157-164
objects, 161-163
security, 163-164
state change notification and entity status inquiry, 160


JBOD (just a bunch of disks), 32-34
Jitter, 43-44


Keys, encryption, 173-175


Label Distribution Protocol (LDP), 188
Label switch router (LSR), 188, 189
LAN-free backups, 210-211, 213-216
Link aggregation, Gigabit Ethernet, 62-64
Link-state protocol, 89
Logical unit number (LUN) masking, 170-171, 172
Loop connections, Fibre Channel, 53-54


Management, issues of enhanced, 241-242
Maximum transmission unit (MTU), 107
Media access control (MAC), 22
Metro Fibre Channel Protocol (mFCP), 138-139
Mirroring, 29, 34
remote, 225-227
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), 124, 187-189


Naming, iSCSI, 142-144
NAS (network-attached storage), 13
architecture, 40-41
block aggregation methods, 16-17
combined with SAN, 17-18
National Committee of Industrial Technology Standards (NCITS), 42, 116, 197
Network address translator (NAT), 85
Network interface cards (NICs), 37-39
Network File System (NFS), 17
Nishan Systems, 139, 156


Objects, iSNS, 161-163
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol, 55, 56, 88-90
Operating systems, SCSI, 71-74
Ordered sets, 38
Fibre Channel, 47
Gigabit Ethernet, 47
OSI (Open System Interconnection) Reference Model, 19-20, 21, 57


order of data, 22-23
routing of, 23
PAUSE frame format, 61-62, 98, 138
Performance issues, 240-241
Point-to-point connections, Fibre Channel, 53
Portals, 161
Port login (PLOGI), 132
Port numbers, UDP, 99-100
Port zoning, 168-169
Private loop devices, 54
Protocol data units (PDUs), 142, 145-146, 147-148
Public key infrastructure (PKI), 174
Public loop devices, 54


Quality of service (QoS)
class of service and, 179-180
differentiated services (DiffServ) 123-124, 182-185
FCIP, 123-124
Multiprotocol Label Switching, 124, 187-189
Resource Reservation Protocol, 185-187
traffic prioritization, 180-181
type of service fields, 181-182


RAID (redundant array of independent disks), 28-31
Really awful timeout value, 120
Remote applications, storage for, 220-221
backups, 222-225
content distribution, 229-230
disaster recovery, 228-229
mirroring, 225-227
symmetrix remote data facility, 227-228
Remote direct memory access (RDMA), 41
Resource allocation timeout value, 120
Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP), 185-187
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP), 88
RFCs (requests for comments), 116
Routers, IP, 92-94
Routing, IP, 88-90
Routing information field (RIF), 81-82
Routing Information Protocol (RIP), 88, 89


SAM-2, 74, 75, 76
SANs (storage area networks)
block aggregation methods, 15-16
combined with NAS, 17-18
FCIP interfaces, 120-121
SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface), 3
See also iSCSI (Internet SCSI)
architectural model, 74-77
bridges, 36-37
cables, 39-40
client/server model, 75, 76
commands, 76
daisy chain, 11, 12
Fibre Channel compared with, 52
operating systems, 71-74
pros and cons of, 11-12
SCSI-3, serial, 3
architectural model, 74-77
access control lists, 135, 175-176
discovery domain sets, 157, 171-172
Fibre Channel SANs, 168-171
iFCP, 135-136
IPSec, 172-175
iSCSI, 148
iSNS, 163-164
logical unit number masking, 170-171, 172
VLAN tagging, 59-60, 172
zoning, port, 168-169
zoning, world wide name, 169
Sequence number acknowledgment (SNACK), 147
Sequence numbers, 104
Serial RDMA Protocol (SRP), 197
Serial Storage Architecture (SSA), 236-237
Serial transport, 21-22
Server clustering, 202-210
Service Locator Protocol (SLP), 144
Session management, iSCSI, 144-146
Simple name server (SNS), 54
iFCP, 132-133
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), 55, 99-100, 168
Skew, 39-40
Sliding window, 107-109
Slow-start algorithm, TCP, 109
Sockets, 104
Spanning tree, IP, 81-82
Standards, development of, 115-118
State change notification (SCN), 54-55
iSNS, 155-156, 160
Storage, shared
OSI model, 19-20
SNIA model, 13-18
transition from captive storage to, 11-13
Storage area networks. See SANs
Storage deployment, prerequisites for successful, 239-243
Storage domain, 13
Storage name server, Internet. See iSNS
Storage network(s)
assumptions for IP-based SANs, 65
expectations for, 235-239
Fibre Channel, 42-56
future for, 243-244
Gigabit Ethernet, 56-65
integration of, 242-243
NAS, 40-41
SCSI cabling, 39-40
software and hardware, 27
terminology, 27-39
Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA)
description of, 251-258
shared storage model, 13-18, 239-240
Storage networking layers
access method, 22
addressing, 22
packetizing of data, 22-23
routing of packets, 23
serial transport, 21-22
upper layer protocol support, 23
Striping, 28, 29-30
Subnet masking, 85-87
Switches, IP, 92-94
Symmetrix remote data facility (SRDF), 227-228
SYN flag set, 106


Tape subsystems, 34-36
Target channel adapters, 197
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
connection control and iFCP, 133-134
error recovery, 109-110
establishing connections, 105-107
FCIP and, 118-119
header, 104-105
keep-alive option, 122
role of, 103-104
segment size, 107
sliding window and congestion control, 107-109
upper layer interface, 110-111
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol), advantages of, 2-3
Third-party copy, 214-216
Three-way handshake, 106
Timeout values, FCIP and, 119-120
Token Ring, 81
Traffic prioritization, 180-181
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP), 99
Type of service (TOS) fields, 181-182


Uniform resource locator (URL), 143
Uniform resource names (URNs), 143
Upper layer protocol
Fibre Channel, 51-53
support, 23
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
advantages and disadvantages of, 97
connectionless service, 97-99
header, 100
for IP storage applications, 100-101
port numbers, 99-100


Variable-length subnet masking (VLSM), 86
Vendors, list of products and web sites, 247-250
Virtual lanes (VLs), 194-195
Virtual private networks (VPNs), 135
backups, 212-213
tagging, 59-60, 172


Web sites, for vendors, 247-250
Windows Disk Administrator, 72
World Wide Name (WWN), 22, 162
zoning, 169
World wide unique identifier (WWUI), 162


Zoning, 59, 155
port, 168-169
world wide name, 169


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