The expert guide to deploying and managing any WebSphere Application Server V5.x application and environment
If you're a WebSphere Application Server administrator or developer, this
is your advanced guide for delivering applications rapidly, running them smoothly, and administering them efficiently. Four leading IBM consultants draw on their years of experience to illuminate the key steps involved in taking WebSphere Application Server applications from development to production. They focus on the areas most crucial to success, including application assembly and build, application and infrastructure configuration and administration, and application testing and verification. Along the way, they show how to implement automated deployment processes that can be executed frequently, reliably, and quicklyso you can get your applications to market fast. The focus is on WebSphere Application Server Version 5.1, but much of the information applies to other versions.
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I. INTRODUCTION TO WEBSPHERE AND DEPLOYMENT.
Who Should Read This Book.
Why Concentrate So Much on Deployment?
How This Book Is Organized.
Introduction to WebSphere.
2. J2EE Applications.
Understanding J2EE and J2EE Applications.
EAR Deployment Descriptors.
3. WAS Quick Start.
Overview of Applications Used Throughout This Book.
WAS Deployment Quick Start.
Configuring a File Sample Security Registry.
Deploying Applications to WAS.
4. Build and Deploy Procedures.
Development and Build Terminology.
Build and Deployment Models.
Assemble Connection Model.
Assemble Export Model.
Assemble Server Model.
Combining Build and Deployment Automation.
Adding Configuration Automation to Build and Deploy Automation.
5. WebSphere Application Server Architecture.
WebSphere Architecture Terms.
WAS Resource Scope.
Classloaders in WebSphere.
JNDI in WAS.
Logging and Tracing in WAS.
Part II. J2EE DEPLOYMENT AND ADMINISTRATION.
6. J2EE Web Applications and the Web Container.
J2EE Web Application Technologies.
Java Server Pages.
Filters and Life-Cycle Listeners.
J2EE Web Application Characteristics.
WAS Web Container.
Web Container Components.
Web Application Descriptors and Packaging.
Web Deployment Descriptors.
Packaging Web Application in WAR Files.
Examining the Build Scripts.
Running the Build Process.
7. JDBC as a Resource.
JDBC and J2EE Services.
JDBC Object Types.
JDBC Data Source.
JDBC Connection Pool.
JDBC Isolation Levels.
J2EE Connector Architecture.
Examining JDBC wsadmin Scripts.
Running the Build and Deployment Process.
8. J2EE Connector Architecture.
J2C Resource Adapters.
J2C System Contracts.
J2C Common Client Interface.
WAS J2C Implementation.
WebSphere Relational Resource Adapter.
CICS Resource Adapter.
9. Enterprise JavaBeans.
Introduction to Enterprise JavaBeans.
Enterprise JavaBean Types.
Enterprise JavaBean Elements.
Enterprise JavaBean Deployment with WAS.
Enterprise JavaBean Module.
Build and Deployment Analysis.
10. CMP and Advanced EJB Settings.
Understanding CMP 2.0.
Container Managed Relationships.
EJB Query Language (EJB-QL).
WebSphere Persistence Architecture.
Bean and Data Caching.
Configuring the Bean Cache.
Configuring Entity Bean Cache Options.
Configuring EJB Data Cache.
Distributed Cache Synchronization.
Dealing with Isolation Levels in CMP.
So Why Does the Deployer Care?
11. Transactions with WebSphere Application Server.
Introduction to Transactions.
J2EE Applications and Transactions.
J2EE Transaction Model.
WebSphere Application Server Transaction Manager.
WebSphere Transactional Enhancements.
Distributed Transaction Failure Recovery.
Advanced Recovery Considerations.
12. JMS and Message Driven Beans.
Understanding JMS and Message Driven Beans.
Java Messaging Service.
Transactional Behavior in JMS.
JMS in WebSphere Application Server.
Message Driven Beans.
Message Driven Bean Configuration.
Defining JMS Configuration with wsadmin.
Run the Build Deployment Process.
13. Other Resources.
URL Resources and Properties Files.
Creating a URL Resource with wsadmin.
Creating a Mail Session with wsadmin.
14. Client Applications.
What Is a “Client Application?”.
Types of WAS-Supported Client Applications.
Client Application Examples.
WAS Application Clients CD.
J2EE Client Packaging.
J2EE Clients and Resources.
Running J2EE Clients.
III. MANAGING WEBSPHERE APPLICATION SERVER INFRASTRUCTURE.
15. Advanced Considerations for Build.
Understanding J2EE Packaging.
Sharing Common EJBs.
Sharing Utility Code.
Verification in Large Development Environments.
16. Ideal Development and Testing Environments.
Ideal Development Environments.
Development Integration Runtime.
Development Integration Test.
17. JMX in WebSphere Application Server.
An Introduction to JMX.
Distributed Services Layer.
JMX in WebSphere Application Server.
WAS MBeans via the MBeanInspector.
wsadmin MBean Access.
Writing Java Clients to Access MBeans.
Custom MBeans in WAS.
JMX in WAS-Network Deployment.
JMX Communication in WAS.
Limits and Reality.
WAS Security Architecture.
Advanced Considerations for Security Configuration.
Total System View–The Details Matter.
Infrastructure-Based Preventative Measures.
Application-Based Preventative Measures–Configuration.
Application-Based Preventative Measures–Design/Implementation.
19. WebSphere Caching.
Caching Implications on Performance.
Caching Static Files.
Static File Handling.
Web Server Caching.
WAS Plug-In Static Caching.
Dynamic Caching Options.
Dynamic Caching Concepts.
Planning for Caching.
Caching Further Out.
Web Tier Dynamic Caching.
Caching at the Edge.
Advanced Caching Topics.
Data Replication Service (DRS).
Troubleshooting Caching Problems.
IV. WEBSPHERE APPLICATION SERVER NETWORK DEPLOYMENT.
20. WAS Network Deployment Architecture.
WebSphere Architecture Terms.
Web Services Gateway.
ND Cell Administration.
Persistent Namespace Bindings.
Distributed Replication Service.
21. WAS Network Deployment Clustering.
WebSphere Clustering Architecture.
Web Container Failover.
EJB Container Failover.
Creating WebSphere Application Server-ND Clusters.
Application Installation and Maintenance.
Application Deployment Considerations.
Hardware Clustering and WAS-ND.
WAS-ND Administrative Runtime.
Node Agent High Availability.
Deployment Manager High Availability.
More Cells Increase Availability.
22. Session Management.
Introduction to HTTP Session.
SSL ID Tracking.
The Session API.
WAS Session Management Configuration.
Local and Distributed Session Options.
Session Tuning and Troubleshooting.
23. WebSphere Edge Components.
WebSphere Edge Components Review.
WebSphere Edge Components Implementation.
Topology Patterns on the Edge.
V. Problem Determination and Server Tools.
24. Problem Determination.
Problem-Solving First Steps.
Understand the Problem.
HTTP Server Problem Determination.
Elsewhere Around the Infrastructure.
WAS General Problem Determination.
Active WAS Problem Determination.
WebSphere Support and Related Utilities.
When All Else Fails.
Reproducing the Problem.
Building a Team.
Problem Determination Tools.
WAS Minor Tools.
25. Performance Tuning Tools.
WAS Performance Monitoring Infrastructure.
WebSphere-Supplied PMI Clients.
Performance Monitoring Servlet.
Tivoli Performance Viewer.
PMI Request Metrics.
Runtime Performance Advisor.
Other Performance Tools.
WebSphere Thread Analyzer.
WebSphere Request Queues.
Performance Tuning in Practice.
Step 1–Construct a Throughput Curve.
Step 2–Test with the Performance Advisor.
Step 3–Validating the TPV Suggested Changes.
Step 4–Drill Down into Problem Components.
Step 5–Tune the Runtime or Change the Application.
Step 6–Repeat as Required.
Other Performance-Tuning Scenarios.
Load Generation Tools.
Appendix A. ANT WITH WEBSPHERE APPLICATION SERVER.
WebSphere Application Server ANT Tasks.
Administrative ANT Tasks.
Web Service ANT Tasks.
WebSphere Studio ANT.
Appendix B. Deployment Checklist.
Appendix C. Setup Instructions for Samples.
Getting Products and Samples.
WebSphere Application Server.
Application Server Toolkit.
WebSphere Studio Application Developer.
DB2 Universal Database.
Setting Up Examples.
Setting Up WSTRADE Database.
Viewing Source Code and Model Scripts in WebSphere Studio/ASTK.
Appendix D. Web Services Gateway Clustering.
Web Services Gateway Overview.
Web Services Gateway and Channel Installation.
Web Services Gateway and Channel Configuration.
Web Services Gateway Configuration Cloning.
HTTP Server Plug-In Configuration.
Just as there are two sides to every coin, there are two sides to each WebSphere project. And just as you can't have one side of a coin without another, you can't leave off one half of your WebSphere project and expect the other to succeed. I'm speaking, of course, about the two major roles involved in J2EE projects—not only application developers (or J2EE programmers) but also the role that's most often overlooked—the application deployer.
The bookshelves of any large bookstore will be well laden with books on how to develop code for J2EE application servers. In fact, most bookstores will have several that I've contributed to. It's easy for a developer to find a good, reliable source of information on how to do his job. However, that's not quite the case with a WebSphere deployer.
Why is this true? Well, I believe that one reason is that even though J2EE has always defined the different roles like deployer and system administrator, the emphasis has always been on the development role because it is the one that the authors and readers of the J2EE specs identify with the most.
This book is one of the first efforts to address this inconsistency. You see, the issue is that deployment is difficult—in many ways, planning and executing a successful application deployment is as difficult as developing the application itself. There are a myriad of issues to consider—is your topology sufficient to meet your application performance needs? Are both your network and applications secured from external intrusion and unauthorized internal access? Do you have a plan for managing upgrades to your application and to the software (application servers, databases, third-party libraries) on which your application depends? If you don't have the right answer for any of these questions, your application will not meet your user's needs, no matter how well it's written. Unfortunately, WebSphere system administrators and deployers often get the short end of the stick when educational resources are assigned. While it's often easy in many development shops to obtain authorization for a class on J2EE development, it's often harder to find a good class on administration and harder to justify the expense. Thus, there exists an urgent need for guides like the book you now hold.
This book is a wonderful resource; not only does it contain detailed instructions on how to carry out the real work of building and deploying applications, but more importantly, it also provides a wealth of information on best practices for application deployment.
I have immense respect for the authors of this book—they are the true experts in their field. When someone needs an answer on application security, topology design, or deployment, no group is more qualified to provide it than the authors assembled for this book. They've done a great job of capturing that knowledge here, and I'm sure you'll benefit from it. So sit back, grab a cup of coffee, and start reading—you'll find that the process of building and deploying your WebSphere applications will be better as a result.
Senior Technical Staff Member
IBM Software Services for WebSphere
Author of Enterprise Java Programming with IBM WebSphere, Second Edition
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