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A practical guide to modeling and designing reliable networks
High Availability Network Fundamentals discusses the need for and the mathematics of availability, then moves on to cover the issues affecting availability, including hardware, software, design strategies, human error, and environmental considerations. After setting up the range of common problems, it then delves into the details of how to design networks for fault tolerance and provides sample calculations for specific systems. Also included is a complete, end-to-end example showing availability calculations for a sample network.
Part I Introduction to Availability
Chapter 1
Introduction to High Availability Networking
Why Do We Need High Availability?
What Is High Availability?
Attracting and Keeping Internet Customers
High Availability and Government Regulation
Presenting and Describing High Availability Measurements
The Percentage Method
The Defects per Million Method
MTBF, MTTR, and Availability
Relating the Percentage and DPM Methods
Additional Considerations in Measuring Availability
Analyzing Time Spent in Network Outages
Chapter 2
The Basic Mathematics of High Availability
Determining the Availability of Network Device Components
Estimating MTTR of a Network
The Availability Equation and Network Device Components
Availability and Uptime/Downtime
Determining the Availability of a Single Component
Determining the Availability of Multiple Components
Serial Availability
Simple Parallel Availability
N + 1 Parallel Availability
Serial/Parallel Availability
Determining Data Flow in a Network: Path Analysis
Using Reliability Block Diagrams for Path Analysis
Chapter 3
Network Topology Fundamentals
Serial Topology
Parallel Topology
Serial/Parallel Topology
Summary
Part II Predicting Availability
Chapter 4
Factors That Affect Availability
Predicting Hardware Availability
MTBF and MTTR
Calculating the Availability of a Simple Network Device
Calculating the Availability of a Redundant Single System
Calculating the Availability of a Network Segment
Predicting Software Availability
Calculating Software MTBF
Examples of Including Software Availability
Predicting Availability Considering the Environment
MTBF and MTTR for Electrical Power
Mitigating Power Loss
Power Loss Summary
Including Human Error and Process in Availability Calculations
Historical Downtime Due to Human Error and Process
Creating a Map of Downtimes Caused by Process Issues
Incorporating Process Issues in Network Availability Predictions
Mitigating Human Error Through Operations Process
Human Error and Operation Process Summary
Network Design
Load Sharing Redundant Fail-over Mechanisms
Standby Redundant Fail-over Mechanisms
Examples of Fail-over Mechanism Calculations
Summary
References Used in This Chapter
Chapter 5
Predicting End-to-End Network Availability: The Divide-and-Conquer Method
The Divide-and-Conquer Steps
A VoIP Network Example
Step 1: Determine Scenarios and RBDs
Step 2: Calculate the Availability of the Network Components
Step 3: Scenario-by-Scenario Redundancy Computations
Step 4: End-to-End Availability Calculations for Each Scenario
Section Summary: The End-to-End Network Availability Results
Designing Networks for Availability Goals
Summary
Part III Examples of Analyzing Real-World Availability
Chapter 6
Three Cisco Products:An Availability Analysis
Cisco uBR 924 Availability Calculations
Cisco uBR 7246 Availability Calculations
Cisco 12000 Availability Calculations
Chapter 7
A Small ISP Network: An Availability Analysis
The Small Internet Service Provider Network
Scenario 1 of The Small ISP Example
System Level Calculations for Scenario 1
The Network Availability for Scenario 1
Summary of Scenario 1
Scenario 2 of The Small ISP Example
System Level Calculations for Scenario 2
The Network Availability for Scenario 2
Summary
Chapter 8
An Enterprise Network: An Availability Analysis
System Level Calculations for an Enterprise Network
The Cisco 3600 Availability Calculations
The Cisco 1538 Availability Calculations
The Downtime from Lost Power for an Enterprise Network
Network Calculations for an Enterprise Network
The Parallel Component Calculations
The Serial Availability Calculations
Human Error and Process Contribution to Downtime in an Enterprise Network
Summary
Chapter 9
A Large VoIP Network: An Availability Analysis
A VoIP over Cable Network
The Availability Scenarios of VoIP over HFC
Scenario 1: Data to the Internet
Scenario 2: On Net Local Calling
Scenario 3: Off Net Local Calling
Scenario 4: Off Net Long Distance Calling
A Final Note About Scenarios
The System Level Calculations for VoIP over HFC
The CPE Router System Level Calculations
The Head-end Router System Level Calculations
The Backbone Router System Level Calculations
The Switch (8540) System Level Calculations
The PSTN Gateway System Level Calculations
The Assumed Availability Figures
Network Level Availability Calculations
Calculating Smaller Redundant Segments
Small Serial Network Component Calculations
Major Network Service Construct Availability
The Internet Access Service Availability
The Network Control Service Availability
Power Contribution to Downtime
PSTN Gateway Services Availability Computations
Calculating Scenario Availability
The Scenario 1 Calculations
The Scenario 2 Calculations
The Scenario 3 and 4 Calculations
Summary
Appendix A
The Contents of the CD
Computer Requirements
Basic Instructions for Using the CD
Chapter by Chapter Contents
Using the SHARC Spreadsheet
System Configuration Worksheet Procedure
Index