The complete, up-to-date guide to quantifying and mitigating environmental risks. This book constitutes Volume 2 of the Prentice Hall PTR Environmental Management Engineering Series.
In an era of limited resources and heightened environmental awareness, professionals responsible for handling chemicals and chemical wastes need a deep understanding of quantitative risk analysis. This is the first book to assemble in-depth coverage of the diverse topics relevant to measuring and mitigating environmental risks.
A companion to the well-received Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications, this book's readable explanations and illuminating case studies will help you:
Using detailed quantitative illustrations, the book presents current techniques for assessing exposures, predicting carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic effects, and analyzing the risks of ionizing radiation. It introduces today's broader “ecology assessments” that review the impact of a manufacturing process on the entire surrounding ecosystem. Finally, it shows how to manage risk analysis, integrate it with U.S. EPA regulatory compliance, and use it to help achieve global ISO 14000 environmental certification.
If you can measure a process, you can understand it, control it, and make it environmentally friendlier. Whether you are a professional safety, health, environmental or R&D professional—in industry, government, or the community—this book delivers all the tools you'll need.
2. Process Descriptions.
3. Hazard Identification.
4. Source Models.
5. Fault Tree Analysis.
6. Consequence Analysis.
7. Exposure Assessment.
8. Dose Response and Risk Characterization.
9. Radiation Risk Assessment.
10. Environmental Assessment.
11. Structural Activity Relationships.
12. Risk Management.
13. Managing Risk.
15. ISO 14000
This textbook is primarily designed for teaching and applying the fundamentals of health and environmental risk analysis. It can be used as an industrial reference book, a text for a senior-level undergraduate course, or a text for a graduate course on risk analysis. Anyone interested in understanding, mitigating, or eliminating the risks associated with handling chemicals will find this book helpful. Users may include students as well as personnel from government agencies, city governments, communities, chemical plants, and storage or transportation facilities. This book is a companion text to D. A. Crowl and J. F. Louvar, Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990), an introductory text on chemical process safety. It will serve as a significant extension of Crowl and Louvar's concepts and practices, with emphasis on risk analysis.
Risk analyzers currently use many resources scattered throughout several books, periodicals, and government documents. Often a reference work covers only a simple individual topic in great detail, making risk analysis difficult to comprehend as a single subject. The purpose of this text is to condense the most important technical principles concerning risk analysis by compiling subsets of the information deemed essential for industrial and university use. It is hoped that emphasis on the essentials will help students and practicing scientists and engineers understand the concepts and apply them appropriately.
Risk analysis is especially important today because governments, companies, and communities are becoming more aware of their environmental and safety responsibilities. At the same time, rising costs of regulatory compliance and dwindling natural resources require us to (a) differentiate degrees of risk, (b) identify the most effective risk reduction alternatives, and (c) manage the communication process to facilitate appropriate and timely action. Without realistic relative risk analyses, governments, communities, and practitioners will inappropriately treat all risks equally.
Environmental and safety regulations affect processing plants, universities, laboratories, government facilities, city water purification plants, auto repair shops, and even the local dry cleaners. The process of compliance with environmental regulations can be time consuming and costly and may cause many businesses to move their operations to countries with fewer regulatory constraints. While moving business out of the country supposedly reduces local risk, it will also reduce employment-and unemployment beats out steeplejacking for the riskiest occupation. One major intent of this book is to help regulators and regulatees effectively comply with these regulations.
With the world's population increasing by one billion every ten years, the effectiveness of the chemical industry, for example, is especially important because it has a major influence on the availability of critical products. The chemical industry has a responsibility to work with national governments and local communities to effectively expand its production of