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Guide to SQL Standard, A, 4th Edition

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Guide to SQL Standard, A, 4th Edition

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Description

  • Copyright 1997
  • Dimensions: 6-3/8x9-1/4
  • Pages: 544
  • Edition: 4th
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-96426-0
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-96426-4

The SQL language has established itself as the linqua franca database management; it provides the basis for systems interoperability, application portability, client/server operation, distributed database, and more, and is supported by just about every DBMS on the market today. SQL2 - or, to give it its official name, the International Standard Database language SQL (1992) - represents a major set of extensions to the earlier SQL standard. For a start, the new specification is well over 600 pages, compared with less than 100 for the original version. No database professional can afford to ignore it.

Features
  • Thorough revision of the official ANSI standard for SQL.
  • Covers all important new SQL2 features including extensive integrity support, powerful new operators, national and international character data support and comprehensive date and time support.
  • Continues the tradition of careful, clear, and accurate explanations of complex technical material
Features New to this Edition
  • Covers extensive integrity support, powerful new operators, national and international character data support, all features of SQL2; comprehensive date and time support and clear explanation of the complexitites of Dynamic SQL, all features of SQL2.
  • Provides first tutorial treatment available anywhere of the brand new and dramatically extended version of SQL known informally as SQL2 or SQL/92.


0201964260B04062001

Sample Content

Table of Contents

(Most chapters begin with "Introduction".)

I. INTRODUCTION.

1. Why Sql is Important.

Background.

Is a Standard Desirable?

2. An Overview of Sql.

Introduction.

Data Definition.

Data Manipulation.

Cursor Operations.

Views.

Security and Integrity.

Recovery and Concurrency.

Schemas and Catalogs.

Sessions and Connections.

II. Some Preliminaries.

3. Basic Language Elements.

SQL Language Characters.

Tokens and Separators.

Key Words.

Identifiers and Names.

Scope of Names.

Notation.

4. Catalogs and Schemas.

The SQL-Environment.

Catalogs.

Schemas.

5. Connections, Sessions, and Transactions.

SQL-Agents

SQL-Connections

SQL-Sessions.

SQL-Transactions.

6. Binding Styles.

Introduction.

The Module Language.

Embedded Sql.

Direct Sql.

III. Data Definition and Manipulation.

7. Scalar Objects, Operators, and Expressions.

Introduction.

Data Types.

Literals.

Scalar Operators and Functions.

Aggregate Functions.

Assignments and Comparisons.

8. Data Definition: Domains and Base Tables.

Introduction.

Domains.

Base Tables.

9. Data Manipulation: Noncursor Operations.

Introduction.

Single-Row SELECT.

Insert.

Searched Update.

Searched Delete.

10. Data Manipulation: Cursor Operations.

Introduction.

Cursors.

Cursor-Based Manipulation Statements.

A Comprehensive Example (Module Version).

A Comprehensive Example (Embedded SQL Version).

11. Table Expressions.

Introduction.

Join Expressions.

Table References.

Unions, Differences, and Intersections.

Table Primaries.

Select Expressions.

Derived Table Column Names.

12. Conditional Expressions.

Introduction.

General Remarks.

Comparison Conditions.

BETWEEN and LIKE Conditions.

IN and MATCH Conditions.

ALL-Or-ANY Conditions.

EXISTS Conditions.

UNIQUE Conditions.

A Final Remark.

13. Views.

Introduction.

Data Definition Operations.

Data Manipulation Operations.

The Check Option.

IV. DATA CONTROL.

14. Integrity.

Introduction.

Domain Constraints.

General Constraints.

Base Table and Column Constraints.

Foreign Keys.

Deferred Constraint Checking.

15. Security.

Introduction.

Authorization Identifiers.

Privileges and Access Rules.

GRANT and REVOKE.

The Grant Option.

RESTRICT Vs CASCADE.

V. ADVANCED TOPICS.

16 Missing Information and Nulls.

Introduction.

Effect of Nulls on Scalar Expressions.

Effect of Nulls on Conditional Expressions.

Effect of Nulls on Table Expressions.

Effect of Nulls on Integrity Constraints.

A Recommendation.

17. Dates and Times.

Introduction.

Data Types.

Literals.

Time Zones.

Data Conversion.

Scalar Operators and Functions.

Assignments and Comparisons.

18. Temporary Tables.

Introduction.

Type 1: "Declared" Temporary Tables.

Types 2 and 3: "Created" Temporary Tables.

19. Character Data.

Introduction.

Properties of Character Strings.

Character Sets and Collations.

Data Types.

Literals.

Scalar Operators and Functions.

Assignments and Comparisons.

Character Sets For Identifiers.

20. Dynamic Sql.

Introduction.

What is The Problem?

Statement Preparation and Execution.

SQL Descriptor Areas.

Cursor Operations.

Session Defaults.

21. Information Schemas.

Introduction.

Information Schema Tables.

22. Exception Handling.

Status Codes.

The Diagnostics Area.

23. Call-Level Interface.

Introduction.

What is The Problem?

CLI Routines and Parameters.

CLI Resources and Related Matters.

Statement Preparation and Execution.

CLI Descriptor Areas.

Placeholders.

Retrieval Operations.

Exception Handling.

A Sample "SQLCLIH" File.

A Sample CLI Application.

APPENDIXES.

A. An Sql Grammar.

Introduction.

Sessions, Connections, and Transactions.

Data Definition.

Modules.

Data Manipulation.

Table Expressions.

Conditional Expressions.

Constraints.

Dynamic Sql.

Scalar Expressions.

Get Diagnostics.

Miscellaneous.

B. Language Levels and Conformance.

Introduction.

Intermediate Sql.

Entry Sql.

SQL Flagger.

C. Sql/92 Vs Sql/89.

Introduction.

Extensions.

Incompatibilities.

Deprecated Features.

D. Some Outstanding Issues.

Introduction.

The Issues.

E. Persistent Stored Modules.

Introduction.

Overview.

Routines, Modules, and Schemas.

Type Precedence.

Subject Routine Determination.

SQL Control Statements.

Exception Handling.

External Routines.

Miscellaneous Topics.

F. An Overview of Sql3.

Introduction.

Data Definition and Manipulation.

Functions and Operators.

Integrity.

Security.

Transactions.

G. References and Bibliography. 0201964260T04062001

Preface

Several changes have occurred in the SQL standards world since the previous edition of this book was published. First of all, a major new component, the Call-Level Interface (SQL/CLI), was added to the standard in 1995. Second, another major new component, the Persistent Stored Modules feature (SQL/PSM), is currently under development (and indeed nearing completion); SQL/PSM is not yet part of the standard but is virtually certain to become so in the near future. Third, the original standard itself has been significantly changed and corrected through the publication of two Technical Corrigenda, one in 1994 and one in 1996. Taken together, these changes are more than sufficient to justify this new (fourth) edition. At the same time, I have taken the opportunity to extend and improve the text throughout in numerous ways, and in particular to correct a few errors. It is not an exaggeration to say that scarcely a sentence survives intact from the third edition.

Acknowledgments

Once again I must thank my coauthor Hugh Darwen for his invaluable contribution (especially in connection with the SQL/PSM and SQL3 appendixes). I would also like to thank Paul Cotton and Frank Pellow for their help with the material on SQL/CLI; Peter Pistor for pointing out an error in the treatment of foreign keys in the previous edition; Mike Sykes for assistance with questions regarding SQL's date and time support (especially in connection with time zones); and Mel Zimowski for assistance with questions regarding SQL's "global transaction" support. I am also indebted to Nelson Mattos, Frank Pellow, and Jeff Richey for their careful reviews of the manuscript.

Finally, I am (as always) deeply indebted to my wife, Lindy, for her support throughout this project; to my editor, Elydia Davis, for her usual sterling job; and to the staff at Addison-Wesley for their usual help and professionalism. Once again it has been a pleasure to work with them.

Healdsburg, California
C. J. Date
1996


0201964260P04062001

Updates

Errata

Known errors in first printing

Date of this list: March 5th, 1997

Page 31, Section 3.3: PAD and SPACE are reserved key words, not nonreserved; MESSAGE_TEXT is an additional nonreserved key word.

Page 112, first paragraph: Replace the last sentence ("Omitting the parenthesized ... within that table.") by the following:

The parenthesized commalist of column names, if included, must not specify the same column twice; omitting that commalist -- the practice is not recommended -- is equivalent to including one that specifies all of the columns of the target table, in their left-to-right order within that table.

Page 113, last paragraph: Insert the following immediately before the sentence "The rows of T ... in the SET clause.":

The assignment-commalist must not include two assignments to the same column.

Page 160: Replace the first block of cp text on this page by the following:

 
SELECT DISTINCT SP.PNO, ( SELECT MAX ( SPX.QTY )
   FROM   SP AS SPX
   WHERE  SPX.PNO = SP.PNO 
   AND    SPX.SNO <> 'S1' ) AS XXX,
   ( SELECT MIN ( SPX.QTY )
   FROM   SP AS SPX
   WHERE  SPX.PNO = SP.PNO 
   AND    SPX.SNO <> 'S1' ) AS YYY
FROM   SP
WHERE  SP.SNO <> 'S1'

Page 161: Replace the sole block of cp text on this page by the following:

SELECT ZZZ AS PNO, ( SELECT MAX ( QTY )
     FROM   SP 
     WHERE  PNO = ZZZ 
     AND    SNO <> 'S1' ) AS XXX,
     ( SELECT MIN ( QTY )
     FROM   SP 
     WHERE  PNO = ZZZ 
     AND    SNO <> 'S1' ) AS YYY
FROM ( SELECT DISTINCT PNO AS ZZZ
     FROM   SP 
     WHERE  SNO <> 'S1' ) AS POINTLESS

Page 269, sentence beginnining "Observe" (immediately below first figure): The final period should be outside the closing parenthesis, not inside it.



ERRATA

The Persistent Stored Modules feature (PSM) was ratified in late 1996. As a consequence, the text of Appendix E requires a number of technical revisions and clarifications (most of them fairly minor in nature). The most significant are summarized below, with an indication of those pages primarily affected.

  • Passim: PSM parameter and SQL variable names do not include a colon prefix. References to names are resolved according to the sequence column (highest precedence), variable, parameter (lowest precedence).

  • Pages 465-466: Module definitions do not contain a LANGUAGE specification, routine definitions do. LANGUAGE SQL is the default.

  • Page 466: The prohibition against recursion described in the footnote is now in dispute.

  • Pages 467ff: The [NOT] DETERMINISTIC and READS or MODIFIES SQL DATA specifications (see pages 489-490) apply not only to external routines but to SQL routines as well.

  • Pages 469 and 480: SQL routines cannot contain SQL dynamic statements; server modules cannot contain temporary table, cursor, or dynamic cursor definitions.

  • Page 471: The situation discussed in the first bullet item (in which a PSM routine invocation appears in a DEFAULT clause) cannot occur.

  • Pages 481-482: PSM does include the FOR statement.

  • Page 483: SQL domains cannot be used to specify the data type of SQL variables, nor can statement labels be used as high-level qualifiers on references to such variables.

  • Page 491: The following are additional key words: CONDITION_IDENTIFIER, CONTAINS, PARAMETER_NAME, ROUTINE_CATALOG, ROUTINE_NAME, ROUTINE_SCHEMA, SPECIFIC_NAME. Of these, CONTAINS (only) is reserved. REDO is not a key word.

  • Page 492: CALL is the only preparable SQL control statement. FOR is transaction-initiating and LEAVE is not; the other statements are "possibly" transaction-initiating.

  • Page 493: Support for server modules is optional.

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