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Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, 4th Edition

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Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, 4th Edition

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Features

The best selling chemical reaction engineering book just got better!

° The fundamentals of chemical reaction engineering -- presented in a clear and conciser manner

° The reader learns how to solve problems through reasoning rather than getting lost in trying to remember which formula applies to what situation

° Reader develops critical and creative thinking skills they can apply to many situations, becoming more productive and self-reliant

-The solutions manual is now available for download through the IRC

Description

  • Copyright 2006
  • Dimensions: 7x9-1/4
  • Pages: 1120
  • Edition: 4th
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-047394-4
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-047394-3

The Definitive, Fully Updated Guide to Solving Real-World Chemical Reaction Engineering Problems

The fourth edition of Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering is a completely revised version of the worldwide best-selling book. It combines authoritative coverage of the principles of chemical reaction engineering with an unsurpassed focus on critical thinking and creative problem solving, employing open-ended questions and stressing the Socratic method. Clear and superbly organized, it integrates text, visuals, and computer simulations to help readers solve even the most challenging problems through reasoning, rather than by memorizing equations.

Thorough coverage of the fundamentals of chemical reaction engineering forms the backbone of this trusted text. To enhance the transfer of core skills to real-life settings, three styles of problems are included for each subject

  1. Straightforward problems that reinforce the material
  2. Problems that allow students to explore the issues and look for optimum solutions
  3. Open-ended problems that encourage students to practice creative problem-solving skills

H. Scott Fogler has updated his classic text to provide even more coverage of bioreactions, industrial chemistry with real reactors and reactions, and an even broader range of applications, along with the newest digital techniques, such as FEMLAB. The fourth edition of Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering contains wide-ranging examples—from smog to blood clotting, ethylene oxide production to tissue engineering, antifreeze to cobra bites, and computer chip manufacturing to chemical plant safety.

About the CD-ROM

The CD-ROM offers numerous enrichment opportunities for both students and instructors, including the following Learning Resources:

  • Summary Notes: Chapter-specific interactive material to address the different learning styles in the Felder/Solomon learning-style index
  • Learning Resources: Web modules, reactor lab modules, interactive computer modules, solved problems, and problem-solving heuristics
  • Living Example Problems: More than fifty-five interactive simulations in POLYMATH software, which allow students to explore the examples and ask “what-if” questions
  • Professional Reference Shelf: Advanced content, ranging from collision and transition state theory to aerosol reactors, DFT, runaway reactions, and pharmacokinetics
  • Additional Study Materials: Extra homework problems, course syllabi, and Web links to related material
  • Latest Software to Solve “Digital Age” Problems: FEMLAB to solve PDEs for the axial and radial concentration and temperature profiles, and Polymath to do regression, solve nonlinear equations, and solve single and coupled ODEs

Throughout the book, icons help readers link concepts and procedures to the material on the CD-ROM for fully integrated learning and reference.



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Table of Contents

1. Mole Balances.

    The Rate of Reaction

    The General Mole Balance Equation

    Batch Reactors

    Continuous-Flow Reactors

    Industrial Reactors

    Summary

    CD-ROM Material

    Questions and Problems

    Supplementary Reading

2. Conversion and Reactor Sizing.

    Definition of Conversion

    Batch Reactor Design Equations

    Design Equations for Flow Reactors

    Applications of the Design Equations for Continuous-Flow Reactors

    Reactors in Series

    Some Further Definitions

    Summary

    CD-ROM Materials

    Questions and Problems

    Supplementary Reading

3. Rate Laws and Stoichiometry.

    Part 1. Rate Laws

    Basic Definitions

    The Reaction Order and the Rate Law

    The Reaction Rate Constant

    Present Status of Our Approach to Reactor Sizing and Design

    Part 2. Stoichiometry

    Batch Systems

    Flow Systems

    Summary

    CD-ROM Material

    Questions and Problems

    Supplementary Reading

4. Isothermal Reactor Design.

    Part 1. Mole Balances in Terms of Conversion

    Design Structure for Isothermal Reactors

    Scale-Up of Liquid-Phase Batch Reactor Data to the Design of a CSTR

    Design of Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors (CSTRs)

    Tubular Reactors

    Pressure Drop in Reactors

    Synthesizing the Design of a Chemical Plant

    Part 2. Mole Balances Written in Terms of Concentration and Molar Flow Rate

    Mole Balances on CSTRs, PFRs, PBRs, and Batch Reactors

    Microreactors

    Membrane Reactors

    Unsteady-State Operation of Stirred Reactors

    The Practical Side

    Summary

    ODE Solver Algorithm

    CD-ROM Material

    Questions and Problems

    Some Thoughts on Critiquing What You read

    Journal Critique Problems

    Supplementary Reading

5. Collection and Analysis of Rate Data.

    The Algorithm for Data Analysis

    Batch Reactor Data

    Method of Initial Rates

    Method of Half-Lives

    Differential Reactors

    Experimental Planning

    Evaluation of Laboratory Reactors

    Summary

    CD-ROM Material

    Questions and Problems

    Journal Critique Problems

    Supplementary Reading

6. Multiple Reactions.

    Definitions

    Parallel Reactions

    Maximizing the Desired Product in Series Reactions

    Algorithm for Solution of Complex Reactions

    Multiple Reactions in a PFR/PBR

    Multiple Reactions in a CSTR

    Membrane Reactors to Improve Selectivity in Multiple Reactions

    Complex Reactions of Ammonia Oxidation

    Sorting It All Out

    The Fun Part

    Summary

    CD-ROM Material

    Questions and Problems

    Journal Critique Problems

    Supplementary Reading

7. Reaction Mechanisms, Pathways, Bioreactions, and Bioreactors.

    Active Intermediates and Nonelementary Rate Laws

    Enzymatic Reaction Fundamentals

    Inhibition of Enzyme Reactions

    Bioreactors

    Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models

    Summary

    CD-ROM Material

    Questions and Problems

    Journal Critique Problems

    Supplementary Reading

8. Steady-State Nonisothermal Reactor Design.

    Rationale

    The Energy Balance

    Adiabatic Operation

    Steady-State Tubular Reactor with Heat Exchange

    Equilibrium Conversion

    CSTR with Heat Effects

    Multiple Steady States

    Nonisothermal Multiple Chemical Reactions

    Radial and Axial Variations in a Tubular Reactor

    The Practical Side

    Summary

    CD-ROM Material

    Questions and Problems

    Journal Critique Problems

    Supplementary Reading

9. Unsteady-State Nonisothermal Reactor Design.

    The Unsteady-State Energy Balance

    Energy Balance on Batch Reactors

    Semibatch Reactors with a Heat Exchanger

    Unsteady Operation of a CSTR

    Nonisothermal Multiple Reactions

    Unsteady Operation of Plug-Flow Reactors

    Summary

    CD-ROM Material

    Questions and Problems

    Supplementary Reading

10. Catalysis and Catalytic Reactors.

    Catalysts

    Steps in a Catalytic Reaction

    Synthesizing a Rate Law, Mechanism, and Rate-Limiting Step

    Heterogeneous Data Analysis for Reactor Design

    Reaction Engineering in Microelectronic Fabrication

    Model Discrimination

    Catalyst Deactivation

    Summary

    ODE Solver Algorithm

    CD-ROM Material

    Questions and Problems

    Journal Critique Problems

    Supplementary Reading

11. External Diffusion Effects on Heterogeneous Reactions.

    Diffusion Fundamentals

    Binary Diffusion

    External Resistance to Mass Transfer

    What If . . . ? (Parameter Sensitivity)

    The Shrinking Core Model

    Summary

    CD-ROM Material

    Questions and Problems

    Supplementary Reading

12. Diffusion and Reaction.

    Diffusion and Reaction in Spherical Catalyst Pellets

    Internal Effectiveness Factor

    Falsified Kinetics

    Overall Effectiveness Factor

    Estimation of Diffusion- and Reaction-Limited Regimes

    Mass Transfer and Reaction in a Packed Bed

    Determination of Limiting Situations from Reaction Data

    Multiphase Reactors

    Fluidized Bed Reactors

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

    Summary

    CD-ROM Material

    Questions and Problems

    Journal Article Problems

    Journal Critique Problems

    Supplementary Reading

13. Distributions of Residence Times for Chemical Reactors.

    General Characteristics

    Part 1. Characteristics and Diagnostics

    Measurement of the RTD

    Characteristics of the RTD

    RTD in Ideal Reactors

    Diagnostics and Troubleshooting

    Part 2. Predicting Conversion and Exit Concentration

    Reactor Modeling Using the RTD

    Zero-Parameter Models

    Using Software Packages

    RTD and Multiple Reactions

    Summary

    CD-ROM Material

    Questions and Problems

    Supplementary Reading

14. Models for Nonideal Reactors.

    Some Guidelines

    Tanks-in-Series (T-I-S) Model

    Dispersion Model

    Flow, Reaction, and Dispersion

    Tanks-in-Series Model Versus Dispersion Model

    Numerical Solutions to Flows with Dispersion and Reaction

    Two-Parameter Models-Modeling Real Reactors with Combinations of Ideal Reactors

    Use of Software Packages to Determine the Model Parameters

    Other Models of Nonideal Reactors Using CSTRs and PFRs

    Applications to Pharmacokinetic Modeling

    Summary

    CD-ROM Material

    Questions and Problems

    Supplementary Reading

Appendix A: Numerical Techniques.

Appendix B: Ideal Gas Constant and Conversion Factors.

Appendix C: Thermodynamic Relationships Involving the Equilibrium Constant.

Appendix D: Measurement of Slopes on Semilog Paper.

Appendix E: Software Packages.

Appendix F: Nomenclature.

Appendix G: Rate Law Data.

Appendix H: Open-Ended Problems.

Appendix I: How to Use the CD-ROM.

Appendix J: Use of Computational Chemistry Software Packages.

Index.

About the CD-ROM.

Preface

Untitled Document "The man who has ceased to learn ought not to be allowed to wander around loose in these dangerous days."

--M. M. Coady

A. The Audience

This book and interactive CD-ROM is intended for use as both an undergraduate-level and graduate-level text in chemical reaction engineering. The level will depend on the choice of chapters and CD-ROM Professional Reference Shelf (PRS) material to be covered and the type and degree of difficulty of problems assigned.

B. The Goals

B.1. To Develop a Fundamental Understanding of Reaction Engineering

The first goal of this book is to enable the reader to develop a clear understanding of the fundamentals of chemical reaction engineering (CRE). This goal will be achieved by presenting a structure that allows the reader to solve reaction engineering problems through reasoning rather than through memorization and recall of numerous equations and the restrictions and conditions under which each equation applies. The algorithms presented in the text for reactor design provide this framework, and the homework problems will give practice using the algorithm. Conventional home problems can for the most part be done with a calculator, while problems requiring significant numerical computations can be solved with a personal computer using Polymath, FEMLAB, or MatLab.

To give a reference point as to the level of understanding of CRE required in the profession, a number of reaction engineering problems from the California Board of Registration for Civil and Professional Engineers-Chemical Engineering Examinations (PECEE) are included in the text. 1 Typically, these problems should each require approximately 30 minutes to solve.

Finally, the CD-ROM should greatly facilitate learn the fundamentals of CRE as it includes summary notes of the chapters, added examples, expanded derivations, and self tests. A complete description of these Learning Resources is given in the "How to Use the CD-ROM" section of this Preface.

B.2. To Develop Critical-Thinking Skills

As a second goal, a number of homework problems have been included that are designed to enhance critical-thinking skills. Socratic questioning is at the heart of critical thinking and a number of homework problems draw from R. W. Paul's six types of Socratic questions 2 shown in the following list.

(1) Questions for clarification: Why do you say that? How does this relate to our discussion? "Are you going to include diffusion in your mole balance equations?" (2) Questions that probe assumptions: What could we assume instead? How can you verify or disprove that assumption? "Why are neglecting radial diffusion and including only axial diffusion?" (3) Questions that probe reasons and evidence: What would be an example? "Do you think that diffusion is responsible for the lower conversion?" (4) Questions about viewpoints and perspectives: What would be an alternative? "With all the bends in the pipe, from an industrial/practical standpoint, do you think diffusion will affect the conversion?" (5) Questions that probe implications and consequences: What generalizations can you make? What are the consequences of that assumption? "How would our results be affected if we neglected diffusion?" (6) Questions about the question: What was the point of this question? Why do you think I asked this question? "Why do you think diffusion is important?"

Scheffer and Rubenfeld 3,4 expand on the practice of critical thinking skills discussed by R. W. Paul, by using the activities, statements, and questions, and describe the following critical-thinking skills.

  • Analyzing: Separating or breaking a whole into parts to discover their nature, functional and relationships
    "I studied it piece by piece"
    "I sorted things out"
  • Applying Standards: Judging according to established personal, professional, or social rules or criteria
    "I judged it according to..."
  • Discriminating: Recognizing differences and similarities among things or situations and distinguishing carefully as to category or rank
    "I rank ordered the various...,"
    "I grouped things together"
  • Information Seeking: Searching for evidence, facts, or knowledge by identifying relevant sources and gathering objective, subjective, historical, and current data from those sources
    "I knew I needed to lookup/study...,"
    "I kept searching for data"
  • Logical Reasoning: Drawing inferences or conclusions that are supported in or justified by evidence
    "I deduced from the information that...,"
    "My rationale for the conclusion was..."
  • Predicting: Envisioning a plan and its consequences
    "I envisioned the outcome would be..."
    "I was prepared for..."
  • Transforming Knowledge: Changing or converting the condition, nature, form, or function of concepts among contexts
    "I improved on the basics by..."
    "I wondered if that would fit the situation of..."

I have found the best way to develop and practice the critical-thinking skills of R. W. Paul and of Sheffer and Rubenfeld is to help write a question on any assigned homework problem and then to explain why the question involves critical thinking.

More information on critical thinking can be found on the CD-ROM in the section on Problem Solving.

B.3. To Develop Creative-Thinking Skills

The third goal of this book is to help develop creative-thinking skills. This goal will be achieved by using a number of problems that are open-ended to various degrees. Here the students can practice there creative skills by exploring the examples problems as outlined at the beginning of the homework problems of each chapter and by making up and solving an original problem. A number of techniques that can aid the students in practicing their creativity (e.g., lateral thinking and brainstorming) can be found in Fogler and LeBlanc. 5 Short add-on problems that encourage the student to think beyond a single answer and to practice creative thinking are described below.

  • Brainstorm ideas to ask another question or suggest another calculation that can be made for this problem.
  • Brainstorm ways you could work this problem incorrectly.
  • Brainstorm the ways to make this problem easier or more difficult.
  • Brainstorm a list of things you learned from working this homework problem and what you think the point of the problem is.
  • Describe how you went about solving this problem.
  • "What if..." questions: The "What if..." questions are particularly effective when used with the Living Example problems, where one varies the parameters to explore the problem and to carry out a sensitivity analysis. For example, "What if someone suggested that you should double the catalyst particle diameter, what would you say?"

Techniques for enhancing one's creative thinking skills can also be found in the Problem Solving section of the CD-ROM and in the Thoughts on Problem Solving section on the web site http://www.engin.umich.edu/~cre . One of the major goals at the undergraduate level is to bring the students to the point where they can solve complex reaction systems, such as multiple reactions with heat effects, and then ask "What if..." questions and look for optimum operating conditions.

In summary, it is the author's experience that both critical and creative thinking skills can be enhanced by extending any of the chapter-end homework problems by using the techniques described above.

C. The Structure

The strategy behind the presentation of material is to continually build on a few basic ideas in chemical reaction engineering to solve a wide variety of problems. These ideas are referred to as the Pillars of Chemical Reaction Engineering, on which different applications rest. The pillars holding up the application of chemical reaction engineering are the following steps in the CRE algorithm

(Mole Balance + Rate Law + Stoichiometry + Energy Balance + Combine)

The contents of this book can be studied in virtually any order after the first four chapters, with few restrictions. Chapter 6 needs to be studied before the last part of Chapters 8 and 9 and Chapter 8 needs to be studied before Chapter 9 and Chapter 13 before Chapter 14

The following lists show examples of topics that can be covered in an undergraduate course and a graduate course. In a four-hour undergraduate course at the University of Michigan, approximately eight chapters are covered in the following order: Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, Sections 5.1-5.3, and Chapters 7, 8, and parts of 10.

Undergraduate Material/Course

  • Mole Balances (Ch.1)
  • Smog in L.A. Basin (PRS Ch.1)
  • Reactor Staging (Ch.2)
  • Hippopotamus Stomach (PRS Ch.2)
  • Rate Laws (Ch.3)
  • Stoichiometry (Ch.3)
  • Reactors (Ch.4): Batch, PFR, CSTR, PBR, Semibatch, Membrane
  • Data Analysis: Regression (Ch.5)
  • Multiple Reactions (Ch.6) Blood Coagulation (SP Ch.6)
  • Bioreaction Engineering (Ch.7)
  • Steady State Heat Effects (Ch.8): PFR and CSTS with and without a Heat Exchanger
  • Multiple Steady States
  • Unsteady State Heat Effects (Ch.9) Reactor Safety
  • Catalysis (Ch.10)

Graduate Material/Course

  • Short Review (Ch.1-4,6,8)
  • Collision Theory (PRS Ch.3)
  • Transition State Theory (PRS Ch.3)
  • Molecular Dynamics (PRS Ch.3)
  • Aerosol Reactors (PRS Ch.4)
  • Multiple Reactions (Ch.6)
  • Fed Membrane Reactors
  • Polymerization (PRS Ch.7)
  • Co- and Counter-Current Heat Exchange (Ch.8)
  • Radial and Axial gradients in a PFR FEMLAB(Ch.8)
  • Reactor Stability and Safety (Ch 8&9)
  • Runaway Reactions (PRS Ch.8)
  • Linearized Stability (PRS Ch.9)
  • Catalyst Deactivation (Ch.10)
  • Residence Time Distribution (Ch.13)
  • Models of Real Reactors (Ch.14)
  • Applications (PRS): Multiphase Reactors, CVD Reactors, Bioreactors

The reader will observe that although metric units are used primarily in this text (e.g., kmol/m 3 , J/ mol), a variety of other units are also employed (e.g., lb/ft 3 ). This is intentional! It is our feeling that whereas most papers published today use the metric system, a significant amount of reaction engineering data exists in the older literature in English units. As a result, engineers will be faced with extracting information and reaction rate data from older literature as well as the current literature and they should be equally at ease with both English and metric units.

There are notes in the margins throughout the book. These serve two purposes: First, they act as guides or as commentary as one reads through the material; second, they identify key equations and relationships that are used to solve chemical reaction engineering problems.

D. The Components of the CD-ROM

The interactive CD-ROM is a novel and unique part of this book. The primary purposes of the CD-ROM are to serve as an enrichment resource and as a Professional Reference Shelf.

Its objectives are threefold: (1) to facilitate the learning of CRE by interactively addressing the Felder/Solomon Inventory of Learning Styles 6 in the Summary Notes, Additional Examples, Interactive Computing Modules (ICMs), and Web Modules; (2) to provide additional technical material for the Professional Reference Shelf; (3) to provide other tutorial information, examples, derivations, self tests (such as additional thoughts on problem solving), the use of computational software in chemical reaction engineering, and representative course structures. The following components are listed at the end of most chapters and can be accessed from each chapter in the CD-ROM.

Learning Resources

These resources give an overview of the material in each chapter and provide extra explanations, examples, and applications to reinforce the basic concepts of chemical reaction engineering. The learning resources on the CD-ROM include:

  1. Summary Notes --These are notes that will give an overview of each chapter, provide on demand additional examples, derivations, and audio comments, as well as self tests to assess the reader's understanding of the material.
  2. Web Modules --These modules, which apply key concepts to both standard and nonstandard reaction engineering problems (e.g., the use of wetlands to degrade toxic chemicals, cobra bites), can be loaded directly from the CD-ROM. Additional Web Modules are expected to be added over the next several years. (See http://www.engin.umich.edu/~cre .)
  3. Interactive Computer Modules (ICMs) --Students have found the Interactive Computer Modules both fun and extremely useful to review the important chapter concepts and then apply them to real problems in a unique and entertaining fashion. In addition to updating all the ICMs from the last edition, two new modules, The Great Race (Ch.6) and Enzyme Man (Ch.7) have been added.
  4. Solved Problems --A number of solved problems are presented along with problem-solving heuristics. Problem-solving strategies and additional worked example problems are available in the Problem Solving section of the CD-ROM.

Living Example Problems

A copy of POLYMATH is provided on the CD-ROM for the students to use to solve the homework problems. The example problems that use an ODE solver (e.g., POLYMATH) are referred to as Living Example problems because the students can load the POLYMATH program directly onto their own computer in order to study the problem. Students are encouraged to change parameter values and to "play with" the key variables and assumptions. Using the Living Example problems to explore the problem and asking "What if..." questions provides the opportunity to practice critical- and creative-thinking skills.

Professional Reference Shelf

This section of the CD-ROM contains

  1. Material that was in previous editions, such as polymerization, slurry reactors, and CVD reactors, which has been omitted from the printed version of the Fourth Edition.
  2. New material such as collision and transition state theory, aerosol reactors, DFT, and runaway reactions, which are commonly found in graduate courses.
  3. Material that is important to the practicing engineer, such as details of the industrial reactor design for the oxidation of SO2 and design of spherical reactors, and is typically not included in the majority of chemical reaction engineering courses.

Other CD-ROM Material

In addition to the components listed above, the following are included on the CD-ROM:

  • Software Toolbox --Also included in this section are instructions on how to use the different software packages (Polymath, MatLab, FEMLAB and ASPEN PLUS) to solve examples. The Polymath web site ( http://www.polymath-software.com/fogler ) will provide information on how to obtain an updated version of Polymath at a discount from the authors Cutlip and Shacham. A FEMLAB CD-ROM has also been included in the book, allowing the user to solve the Living Example problems with heat effects (Ch.8) and with dispersion (Ch.14), both of which involve partial differential equations involving axial and radial gradients in tubular reactors.
  • FAQs --These are Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) collected over the years from undergraduate students taking reaction engineering.
  • Problem Solving --Both critical thinking and creative thinking are discussed along with what to do when you "get stuck" on a problem.
  • Visual Encyclopedia of Equipment --Developed by Dr. Susan Montgomery at the University of Michigan, this contains a wealth of photographs and descriptions of real and ideal reactors. The students with Visual, Active, Sensing, and Intuitive Learning styles of the Felder/Solomon Index will particularly benefit from this section.
  • Reactor Lab --Developed by Professor Richard Herz at the University of California at San Diego, this interactive tool will allow the student not only to test their comprehension of CRE material but also to explore different situations and combinations of reaction orders and types of reactions.

E. The Integration of the Text and the CD-ROM

There are a number of ways one can use the CD-ROM in conjunction with the text. The CD-ROM provides enrichment resources for the reader in the form of interactive tutorials.

In developing a fundamental understanding of the material, the student may wish to use only the primary resources without using the CD-ROM or the student may use a few or all of the interactive tutorials in the CD-ROM. However, to practice the skills that enhance critical and creative thinking, students are strongly encouraged to use the Living Example problems and vary the model parameters to ask and answer "What if..." questions.

It should be noted that while the author recommends studying the Living Example problems before doing homework problems, they can be bypassed. The same goes for all other enrichment resources if time is short. However, class testing of the enrichment resources reveals that they not only greatly aid in learning the material, but they also serve to motivate students through the novel use of CRE principles.

F. The Web

The web site ( http://www.engin.umich.edu/~cre ) will be used to update the text and the CD-ROM. It will identify typographical and other errors in the first and later printings of the Fourth Edition of the text. In the near future, additional material will be added to include more solved problems as well as additional Web Modules.

G. What's New

G.1. Pedagogy

The CD-ROM has been greatly expanded to address the Felder/Solomon Inventory of Different Learning Styles7 through interactive Summary Notes and Web Modules. For example, the Global Learner can get an overview from the Summary Notes; the Sequential Learner can use the "derive" hot buttons; and the Active Learner can interact with the ICMs and the hot buttons in the Summary Notes.

A new pedagogical concept is introduced in this edition of the text through expanded emphasis on extending the example problems. Here, exercises are given to explore all the example problems in the text to fully understand implications and generalizations before working the homework problems for that chapter. There is a continued focus on developing critical thinking and creative skills. To develop the critical thinking skills the students are asked to expand homework problems by asking a question that involves one or more of R. W. Paul's Six Types of Socratic Questions.8 The creative thinking skills can be enhanced through exploring the example problems and working the open-ended problems. Consequently, some of the text material, e.g., control of chemical reactors and safety, was added because it provides opportunities to formulate and solve problems. For example, in the Case Study on safety, the student can use the CD-ROM to carry out a post-mortem on the nitroanaline explosion in Example 9-2 to find out what would have happened if the cooling had failed for 5 minutes instead of 10 minutes. Significant effort has been devoted to developing example and homework problems that foster critical and creative thinking.

G.2. New Material

The greatest expansion of material is in the area of the bioreaction engineering. New material on enzyme kinetics, cell growth, and tissue engineering has been added. There is a bioreaction engineering homework or example problem in virtually every chapter. In addition there are side notes describing blood coagulation, DNA lab-on-a-chip and methanol poisoning. Bio-related Web Modules include physiological-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of alcohol metabolism and the Russell's viper, the cobra, and the Fer-de-Lance venomous snake bites.

Other new material includes density functional theory, microreactors, side-fed-membrane reactors, advanced reactor safety screening tool (ARSST), runaway reactors, and tubular reactors with axial and radial gradients (FEMLAB). Expanded material includes collision theory, transition state theory, molecular dynamics, and molecular chemical reaction engineering (DFT) to study rate constants.

The Fourth Edition contains more industrial chemistry with real reactors and real reactions and extends the wide range of applications to which chemical reaction engineering principles can be applied (i.e., cobra bites, medications, ecological engineering).

The use of mole balances in terms of concentrations and flow rates rather than conversions is introduced early in the text so they can be easily applied to membrane reactors and multiple reactions. However, all intensive laws tend often to have exceptions. Very interesting concepts take orderly, responsible statements. Virtually all laws intrinsically are natural thoughts. General observations become laws under experimentation.

NOTES

1. The permission for use of these problems, which, incidentally, may be obtained from the Documents Section, California Board of Registration for Civil and Professional Engineers--Chemical Engineering, 1004 6th Street, Sacramento, CA 95814, is gratefully acknowledged. (Note: These problems have been copyrighted by the California Board of Registration and may not be reproduced without their permission).

2. Paul, R. W., Critical Thinking (Published by the Foundation for Critical Thinking, Santa Rosa, California).

3. Courtesy of B. K. Scheffer and M. G. Rubenfeld, "A Consensus Statement on Critical Thinking in Nursing," Journal of Nursing Education, 39, 352-9 (2000).

4. Courtesy of B. K. Scheffer and M.G. Rubenfeld, "Critical Thinking: What Is It and How Do We Teach It?," Current Issues in Nursing, J. M. Grace, H. K. Rubl. (2001).

5. Fogler, H. S. and S. E. LeBlanc, Strategies for Creative Problem Solving (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995).

6. http://www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/ILSdir/styles.htm

7. http://www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/ILSdir/styles.htm

8. Paul, R. W., Critical Thinking (Published by the Foundation for Critical Thinking, Santa Rosa, California).


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