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Digital Telephony Over Cable: The PacketCable™ Network

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Digital Telephony Over Cable: The PacketCable™ Network

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Description

  • Copyright 2001
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8x9-1/4
  • Pages: 624
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-72827-3
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-72827-9

PacketCable promises to be one of the most important developments in networking technology to date. The PacketCable™ network, a project managed by the Cable Television Laboratories consortium, is expected to be deployed by all major American cable companies as well as many overseas cable operators. The large-scale PacketCable network enables high-speed simultaneous transmission of digital computer data and telephone voice signals over cable modems and facilitates the widespread deployment of video and voice Internet applications, such as video conferencing, by utilizing cables that are already in place through cable T.V. Developed through the cooperative efforts of numerous cable television operators and telephony and networking vendors, the specifications enable cable modems to compete aggressively with twisted-pair telephony and DSL technology.

Written for anyone with a stake in this up-and-coming field, Digital Telephony Over Cable serves as a companion guide for implementors and managers alike. It provides an accessible overview of more than a thousand pages of technical specifications with in-depth explanations of the most salient features, and offers extensive background on many of the underlying technologies that make digital telephony over cable possible. You will learn how all of these specifications come together to create a complete, functional telephony network running over a shared access medium.

Readers will find in-depth coverage of important topics such as:

  • PacketCable architecture
  • PacketCable devices
  • Security issues, including cryptography, key management, ciphers, and X.509 certificates
  • Quality of service issues, focusing on DOCSIS and DQoS
  • DOCSIS and MAC specifications for cable modem communication over shared coax
  • Network-based call signaling, featuring MGCP and NCS
  • Distributed call signaling, featuring SIP
  • Network management, covering SNMP, billing, and electronic surveillance
  • Internetworking with PSTN

The book concludes with a look into the future of cable modem telephony, including possible changes to current specifications, ownership issues for the MTA, and Fiber to the Home (FTTH) technology.



0201728273B04062001

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Table of Contents



1. Background.

The Residential Broadband Pipe.

ISDN and DSL.

Cable Access to the Internet.

Hybrid Fiber Coax Networks.

Customer Premise Equipment.

Home Networks.

The PacketCable Project.

PacketCable Architecture.

Packet Technology.

Protocol Stacks.

Placing a Call in a Packet Network.

PacketCable and the Internet.

The Rest of the Book.



2. Security.

Classes of Attack.

Theft of Service.

Denial of Service.

Invasion of Privacy.

Security and Conventional Telephony.

Security in Digital Networks.

Security Concepts.

Cryptographic Security.

Cryptographic Algorithms.

Cryptographic Hashes.

Nonces.

Keys.

Key Management.

Public Key Cryptography.

Digital Signatures.

Certificates.

Conventional Cryptography.

Kerberos.

PKINIT.

Internet Key Exchange (IKE).

Specific Security Mechanisms and Algorithms.

Ipsec.

The Security Parameter Index (SPI).

IPsec internals.

Ciphers.

DES and 3DES.

RSA.

RC4.

Message Authentication Codes.

Multilinear Modular Hash (MMH).

HMACs.

X.509 Certificates.

Format of X.509 Certificates.

PacketCable Certificate Hierarchies.

MTA Root Certificate.

MTA Manufacturer Certificate.

MTA Device Certificate.

IP Telephony Root Certificate.

Telephony Service Provider Certificate.

Local System Certificate.

MTA Telephony Certificate.

Certificate Revocation.

Other Certificates.

Ticket Granting Server Certificate.

Provisioning Server Certificate.



3. The Access Link.

The DOCSIS Specifications.

Overview of the Cable Access Network.

Initialization.

Downstream Synchronization.

Obtaining Upstream Parameters.

Ranging.

Establishing IP Connectivity.

Synchronizing Time of Day.

Transferring Operational Parameters.

Registering.

Initializing Baseline Privacy Plus.

DOCSIS Protocol Layers.

Physical Media Dependent Sublayer.

Modulation Schemes.

Time Slices.

Upstream Transmission.

Downstream Data Flow Through a Cable Modem.

Media Access Control Layer.

MAC Header Format.

MAC Packet Protocol Data Unit (PDU) Format.

Specialized MAC Headers.

Format of MAC Management Messages.

MAC Management.

Service Identifiers and Service Flow Identifiers.

Time Synchronization Message (SYNC).

Upstream Channel Descriptor (UCD).

Ranging.

Ranging Request (RNG-REQ).

Ranging Response (RNG-RSP).

Upstream Bandwidth Allocation Map (MAP).

MAP Information Elements.

Example Upstream Bandwidth Allocation.

Contention Rsolution.

The MAP Message.

Quality Service (QoS).

Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS).

Real-Time Polling Service.

UGS with Activity Detection (AD).

Non-Real-Time Polling Service.

Best Effort Service.

Committed Information Rate.

Dynamic Service Flows.

Baseline Privacy Interface Plus.

Security Associations in BPI1.

Baseline Privacy Key Management (BPKM).

Authenticating the CM.

The Authorization Key.

Obtaining TEKs.

Key Derivation.

TEK Encryption.

Lifetime of Keying Material.

Packet Formats.

The CM's X.509 Certificate.

BPI1 MAC Extended Header.

Where Do We Go From Here?



4. Network-Based Call Signaling.

Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP).

Format.

Command Header.

Digit Maps.

Quarantine.

NCS and DqoS.

Event Packages.

Responses.

Response Parameters.

Response to CRCX.

Response to MDCX.

Response to DLCX.

Response to RQNT.

Response to NTFY.

Response to AUEP.

Response to AUCX.

Response to RSIP.

Encoding Session Descriptions.

Permitted Session Description Parameters.

Protocol Version.

Origin.

Session Name.

Connection Data.

Bandwidth.

Time.

Encryption Keys.

Attributes.

Media Announcements.

RTPMAPs.

Message Transmission.

Piggybacking Messages.

Provisional Responses.

Security.

Bearer-Channel Security.

Encoded RTP Format.

Encrypting RTP Packets.

Key Derivation Function.

Procedure for Encrypting and Decrypting.

Key Management in NCS.

Basic NCS Call Flow.

Call Features.

Caller ID.

Anonymity.

Call Waiting.

Three-Way Calling.



5. Distributed Call Signaling.

Basic Call Flow.

Trust.

Intelligent MTAs.

Messaging

SIP Header Extensions.

INVITE (stage1).

DCS-CALLER.

DCS-ANONYMITY.

DCS-GATE.

DCS-STATE.

DCS-ALSO:

DCS-REPLACES:

DCS-OSPS:

DCS-BILLING-INFO:

DCS-BILLING-ID:

SIP Response Extensions.

SESSION PROGRESS.

SIP and DCS.

DCS URLs.

Supported Headers

SDP.

Protocol version (v=).

Origin (o=).

Session Name (s=).

Connection data (c=).

Bandwidth (b=).

Time (t=).

Encryption keys (k=).

Attributes (a=).

Media Announcements (m=).

Details of DCS Signaling.

Basic Messaging--INVITE and Its Variants.

Retransmission Strategy.

Establishing a Connection.

Message Number 1--INVITE(stage1).

Message Number 2--INVITE(stage1).

Message Number 3--INVITE(stage1).

Message Number 4--200 OK.

Message Number 5--200 OK.

Message Number 6--200 OK.

Message Number 7--ACK.

Message Number 8--INVITE.

Message Number 9--18x.

Message Number 10--200 OK.

Message Number 11--ACK.

Tearing Down a Call.

Implementing Features.

Mid-Call Codec Changes.

BLV and EI.

IP-Anonymity.

DCS and Personal Privacy.



6. Quality of Service.

DQoS and RSVP.

Customer and Operator Expectations.

Gates.

Resources.

Authorization, Reservation and Commitment.

Two-Stage Commitment.

Security and DqoS.

MTA and CMTS.

GC and CMTS.

CMS and CMTS.

DQoS and DOCSIS.

Codecs.

Buckets and Jitter Buffers.

Buckets.

Token Bucket Rate (R).

Token Bucket Size (B).

Maximum Transmission Rate (p).

Jitter Buffers 306

Flowspecs.

Flowspecs, DOCSIS, and SDP.

A Note About RTCP.

More About Gates.

Auto-Commit and Commit-Not-Allowed Flags.

Auto-Commit Flag.

Commit-Not-Allowed Flag.

Gate States.

Auto-Commit and Commit-Not-Allowed Flags.

Auto-Commit Flag.

Commit-Not-Allowed Flag.

Gate States.

Common Open Policy Service (COPS).

Intserv and Diffserv Networks.

COPS in PacketCable Networks.

COPS Messages.

Transaction-ID.

Subscriber-ID.

Gate-ID.

Activity-Count.

Gate-Spec.

Remote-Gate-Info.

Event-Generation-Info.

Media-Connection-Event-Info.

PacketCable-Error.

Electronic-Surveillance-Parameters.

Session-Description-Parameters.

Example PacketCable COPS Object.

Protocol Operation.

Gate Control Messages.

GATE-ALLOC.

GATE-ALLOC-ACK.

GATE-ALLOC-ERROR.

GATE-SET.

GATE-SET-ACK.

GATE-SET-ERR.

GATE-INFO.

GATE-INFO-ACK.

GATE-INFO-ERR.

Examples of COPS Messages.

Initialization of the COPS Connection.

Operation.

Allocating a Gate.

Setting (Creating) a Gate.

Querying a Gate.

Closing and Deleting a Gate.

Gate Coordination.

Format of Gate Coordination Messages.

Gate Coordination Message Contents.

GATE-OPEN.

GATE-OPEN-ACK.

GATE-OPEN-ERR.

GATE-CLOSE.

GATE-CLOSE-ACK.

GATE-CLOSE-ERR.

Example Gate Coordination Message.

Use of Gate Coordination Messages.

Example Call Flow.



7. Provisioning, Back Office and Electronic Surveillance.

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).

The Need for Network Management.

SNMP Architecture.

SNMP Messages.

Power-On Initialization.

Obtaining IP Connectivity Information.

Becoming Part of the Network.

MTA Configuration File Format.

Creating an IPsec Security Association with a CMS.

Wake-Up.

Rekey.

Event Messages.

Billing Correlation ID.

Types of Event Messages.

Event Message Format.

Attributes

Contents of Individual Event Messages.

Message #1: Signaling_Start.

Message #2: Signaling_Stop.

Message #3: Database_Query.

Message #6: Service_Instance.

Message #7: QoS_Start.

Message #8: QoS_Stop.

Message #9: Service_Activation.

Message #10: Service_Deactivation.

Message #13: Interconnect_(Signaling)_Start.

Message #14: Interconnect_(Signaling)_Stop.

Message #15: Call_Answer.

Message #16: Call_Disconnect.

Message #17: Time_Change.

Message #18: QoS_Change.

RADIUS.

RADIUS and Security.

RADIUS Message Header.

RADIUS Accounting-Request Format.

Example RADIUS message.

Electronic Surveillance.

CALEA.

Types of Wiretap.

The CALEA Framework.

Compliance with CALEA.

What May Be Tapped?

Wiretapping Architecture in PacketCable Networks.

Call Signaling.

Changes to Event Messages.

Message #1: Signaling_Start.

Message #6: Service_Instance.

Message #7: QoS_Start.

Message #8: QoS_Stop.

Message #15: Call_Answer.

Message #16: Call_Disconnect.

CDC Connection Between DF and CF.

DCD Message Formats.

Answer.

CCChange.

CCClose.

CCOpen.

Origination.

Redirection.

Release.

TerminationAttempt.

CCC Message Format.

Example Call Flow.

Complications.



8. Interworking with the PSTN.

Architecture.

Signaling.

Mapping.

Media Control.

Packages.

IT--The ISUP Trunk Package.

MO--The Operator Services Package.

MT--The MF Terminating Protocol Package.

Messages.

Example Call Flow.



9. The Future.

Changes to Current Specifications.

New Specifications.

Calls Utilizing More Than One CMS 501

Calls Utilizing More Than One Service Provider.

Automated Security.

New Codecs.

New Encryption Algorithms.

Non-Embedded MTAs.

Future Services.

Business Issues.

The MTA: Where Does It Belong, and Who Owns It?

Primary Line or Secondary Line?

Partially Compliant Networks.

NCS vs DCS.

Fiber to the Home (FTTH).

Putting it All Together.



Appendix A. Glossary.


Appendix B. Cyclic Redundancy Checks.


Appendix C. Standard Encoding.

Binary to Hex.

BASE64.

The BASE64 Algorithm.



Appendix D. Bearer-Channel Keying Material.


Index. 0201728273T04232001

Preface

We live in interesting times, especially in the telecommunications industry. The ubiquity of cellphones, deregulation, voice mail (a double-edged sword if ever there was one), cheap long-distance phone service, direct international dialing, broadband access, always-on access to the Internet--the list of recent fundamental changes in the way that telecommunications impact ordinary consumers could probably extend over several paragraphs. Despite the many changes that have occurred, there seems no reason to believe that the flood of new services will not continue for at least the next half decade, and probably longer.

This book describes a brand new communications technology that is in the process of moving from small-scale trials to full national deployment.

Starting in the late 1990s, consumers have become acquainted with the notion of broadband access to the Internet. The two principal methods used to provide this high-speed access are cable modems, which send their traffic through the same cable as is used to supply cable television, and variants of a technology known as DSL (Digital Subscriber Line), which works over ordinary telephone lines.

The cable and telephone companies are in a race to provide the dominant technology (either cable modem or DSL, respectively) that will provide broadband Internet access to homes. Especially in the United States, cable modem technology has maintained an early lead over DSL, in part because most cable modems use standardized technology whereas DSL technology has (so far) been hampered by the lack of a single, pervasive standard.

DSL does have one tremendous advantage, though. A DSL line can be used simultaneously to provide broadband Internet access and to place (and receive) ordinary phone calls. Until now, cable modems have provided only the first of these features. This book addresses the mechanism by which the cable companies have chosen to provide true digital telephony over the cable access network using ordinary cable modems.

The technology is known generically as Packet Cable Telephony. The particular implementation that we discuss is the result of several years of cooperative effort by cable television operators and vendors of networking and telephony equipment. Known as PacketCable™, all of the major cable companies have stated that they intend to deploy large-scale PacketCable networks in the course of the next few years.

In this book, we provide a detailed explanation of how PacketCable works. The author's intention is to provide a "one-stop" book on PacketCable for graduate students, implementers, managers and anyone else interested in understanding how a complete, functional telephony network can be built from scratch using IP (Internet Protocol) technology running over a shared access medium. This (unfortunately for the author) is a nontrivial task.

The PacketCable specifications alone run close to a thousand pages. The specifications for other technologies that are required in the network (such as the various Internet Protocol standards and the cable modem DOCSIS standards) are roughly the same length. The problem then is obvious: How can one summarize a couple of thousand pages of dense, technical documentation in a way that is simultaneously accurate, thorough and comprehensible? Clearly, something has to give.

The author has attempted to explain in some detail each of the important parts of the technology. Individual chapters are dedicated to the various principles on which PacketCable is built. The intention is that a reader with little background in either networking or telephony should be able to read a chapter--possibly in conjunction with Chapter 1 or Chapter 2--and come away with a solid understanding of exactly how PacketCable handles the particular issues discussed in that chapter.

What we do not discuss are many of the extreme cases, exceptions and detailed requirements placed on equipment by the specifications. The specifications expend a lot of effort ensuring that PacketCable equipment manufactured by vendor A is guaranteed to interoperate correctly with similar equipment manufactured by vendor B. And, in a few cases (although as infrequently as possible), we simply punt: If a feature is particularly complicated and not sufficiently central to the basic theme of explaining PacketCable, we sometimes either avoid it completely or mention it and refer the reader directly to the specifications. Usually only an implementor would be interested in such details, and an implementor should be reading the original specifications in conjunction with this book anyway.

Which brings us to the subject of the market for this book. We just mentioned three likely markets: graduate students, managers and implementors.

We anticipate that graduates working in the fields of advanced networking and telecommunications will find here a thorough explanation of the many issues (and the chosen solutions) facing anyone wishing to design a large-scale, commercially deployable digital telephony network using modern technology and protocols. Managers in the telecommunications industry will find the book useful because it encompasses the entire network. Managers need to understand the "big picture," which is provided in the first couple of chapters of the book, as well as the beginning portions of each of the remaining chapters.

For the implementor, this book is intended to provide an in-depth contextual reference for the PacketCable and other specifications. Implementors are usually concerned with the "small picture," and often this is at the expense of a good understanding of the context in which the implementor is working. Before plunging into the details of one or other of the specifications, this book is useful for providing an explanation of the specifications in ordinary words (well, mostly ordinary words), as well as providing a picture of how all the specifications fit together to define a functioning network.

I recommend reading Chapter 1 even if you have acquired this book for some of the technical material in one of the later chapters. Chapter 1 provides, among other things, an overview of the PacketCable architecture and an introduction to most of the common PacketCable devices. Also, if when skipping around you come across a term that you do not recognize, don't forget that there's a comprehensive glossary in Appendix A.

The organization of most of the chapters follows a model in which detailed information about the format of messages is provided before the higher-level picture that shows how the messages fit together to perform a useful purpose. Although this is an order of presentation that this author prefers, some people may feel uncomfortable with this approach and may prefer to skip forward to obtain a good grasp of the message flows before returning to understand exactly what is in the various messages. Feel free to skip around: It's your book, and you're entitled to use it in whatever way works for you.

The author would like to express his thanks to all who helped this book come to fruition. The author had the pleasure of working with many intelligent and knowledgeable technical architects in various PacketCable Focus Teams. Any list would be bound to miss someone, so I simply say a big "Thank you" to all.

A few people responded to specific questions while the book was being written. I would particularly like to thank Bill Marshall of AT&T Research and Flemming Andreasen, orginally of Telcordia and now with Cisco Systems, both of whom have probably forgotten more about PacketCable than any other person will ever know. Bill Kostka of CableLabs responded promptly and effectively to my DOCSIS questions, and Sasha Medvinsky of General Instruments (now Motorola) clarified several issues related to security.

CableLabs supplies liaison members to the PacketCable Focus Teams, and I would like to explicitly thank those people who fulfilled that role on the teams of which I was a member in the period that the PacketCable 1.0 specifications were being written: Ed Miller (Distributed Call Signaling), Andrew Sundelin (Dynamic Quality of Service), Glenn Russell (Dynamic Quality of Service), Chet Birger (Security), Jean Chess (Security) and Nancy Davoust (PacketCable Electronic Surveillance Protocol).

Thank you to Lucent Cable Communications in general and Jane Gambill, Marty Glapa and Rich Gitlin in particular for allowing me to represent Lucent at CableLabs. Thank you also to SecureCable, Inc. for allowing me the time to complete this book while representing them on PacketCable 1.x Focus Teams.

I wish to thank the various people at Addison-Wesley who helped make this book possible. The technical reviewers were Paul Obeda, Neil Olsen, Khaled Amer, Andrew Valentine, Don Stanwyck, Al Vonkeman, Laura Knapp, Dan Pitt and John J. Brassil. To them go my thanks for pointing out many places where the original text left something to be desired (including, sometimes, accuracy). Special thanks go to my editor, Stephane Thomas, for being such a pleasant person to communicate with on the phone and via e-mail. Thanks also to the people behind the scenes at the production department who had a hand in turning this from a word-processed document into a real book.

Thank you especially to the cable companies for seeing the need for, and supporting, PacketCable.

And, finally, a few words of blatant self-promotion. Writing a technical book is interesting, but hardly fun. One day I hope to escape the hurly-burly of real life and "retire" to write novels full-time instead of merely as time allows. In the Bad Old Days of last year, getting a novel published was much harder than publishing a technical book. After many "very-nearly-almost" acceptances by big New York publishers, I became disenchanted with the whole idea of spending several months writing a novel only to discover that every publisher had a different reason for rejecting it.

With the advent of Print-On-Demand technology, which allows publishers to print books one at a time as orders come in, my novels are now being made available. Please check out http://www.sff.net/people/N7DR/drevans.htp for details.

D. R. Evans
President, D. R. Evans Consulting, Inc.
September, 2000
N7DR@arrl.net


0201728273P04232001

Index

@ (at sign), 151
: (colon), 151
/ (forward slash), 187
- (hyphen), 183, 184, 245
- (minus sign), 166
+ (plus sign), 166
; (semicolon), 155

AAD variable, 192
Access control, basic description of, 33
Accessing_Element_ID attribute, 461, 462, 463, 464
Accessing_System_ID attribute, 466, 467
Accounting_Request message, 436
Acct-data field, 240
Acct_Status_Type attribute, 433-437
Acct_Status_Type format, 433-435
ACK message, 21, 229, 254, 270-274, 279
ACK-Required flag, 403
ActiveQosParameterSet parameter, 128, 129-130
Activity-Count object parameter, 329, 331
address field, 245
address-type field, 245, 246
ADEV variable, 192
AdmittedQosParameterSet, 128, 129
ADSI (Analog Display Services Interface), 155, 172
ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line), 4-6, 9-10, 515
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard), 504
AK (Authorization Key)
basic description of, 132-139, 516
BPI+ and, 135-136
derivation of, 136-137
Algorithm field, 334
Algorithms. See also Codecs; specific algorithms
cryptographic, 34-36
new, 504
specific, basic description of, 49-78
Allocated state, 320
AM (Amplitude Modulation), 87, 89-90
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII). See ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
Anonymity, 217, 232, 282-283
Anonymous call reject, 232
Answering machines, 232
Answering_Party_ID attribute, 461
Answer message, 454, 460-461
AP Reply, 399-400, 401, 407
ARC-FOUR, 504
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), 21, 90, 92, 421, 545
basic description of, 515
BCID and, 410
bearer-channel keying material and, 549
command formats and, 149
Key Derivation Function and, 200-201
piggybacking messages and, 193
printable characters, 187, 415, 417, 418, 419
provisioning mechanisms and, 412, 415, 417, 418, 419
QoS and, 335-336, 338
Rekey message and, 406
responses and, 174
SIP messaging and, 234, 238
ASN.1 notation, 65, 454-457, 515
AT&T (American Telephone & Telegraph), 1-2, 225, 227, 507, 511
At sign (@), 151
Attacks
classes of, 27-29
denial of service, 28-29
invasion of privacy, 29
reply, 37
theft of service, 28
Attributes (listed by name)
Accessing_Element_ID attribute, 461, 462, 463, 464
Accessing_System_ID attribute, 466, 467
Acct_Status_Type attribute, 433-437
Answering_Party_ID attribute, 461
Called_Party_ID attribute, 464, 467
Called_Party_Number attribute, 424, 426
Call_ID attribute, 461, 462, 463, 464, 466, 467
Calling_Party_ID attribute, 464, 467
Calling_Party_Number attribute, 424, 426
Call_Termination_Cause attribute, 426, 430
Carrier_Identification_Code attribute, 424, 429, 450, 451
Case_ID attribute, 461, 463, 464, 466, 467
CCC_ID attribute, 452, 462, 463
Charge_Number attribute, 426, 430
Database_ID attribute, 425
Direction_Indicator attribute, 424, 425, 427, 430, 431
Electronic_Surveillance_DF_Security attribute, 450, 451
Electronic_Surveillance_Indication attribute, 449, 450
Event_Time attribute, 461, 462, 464, 466, 467
First_Call_Calling_Party_Number attribute, 426
Forwarded_Number attribute, 428
Header attribute, 424, 425, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431
Location_Routing_Number attribute, 430
MTA_Endpoint_Name attribute, 424, 425
MTA_UDP_Portnum attribute, 427, 431
New_Call_ID attribute, 466
Originating_SDP attribute, 462, 463
QoS_Descriptor attribute, 427, 431
QoS_Stop attribute, 411, 427, 451-452
Query_Type attribute, 425
Redirected_From_Info attribute, 450, 467
Redirected_From_Party_ID attribute, 466
Redirected_From_Party_Number attribute
Redirected_To_Party_Number attribute, 450
Redirected_to_Party_ID attribute, 466
Related_Call_Billing_Correlation_ID attribute, 426
Returned_Number attribute, 425
Routing_Number attribute, 429, 430, 426
Second_Call_Calling_Party_Number attribute, 426
Service_Name attribute, 426, 428
SF_ID attribute, 427
Surveillance_Indication attribute, 449
Terminating_DSP attribute, 462, 463
Time_Adjustment attribute, 431
Transit_Carrier_ID attribute, 465, 466
Translation_Input attribute, 450, 465
Trunk_Group_ID attribute, 424, 429
User_Input attribute, 450, 465
Attributes parameter, 244, 247-249
AUCX (AuditConnection) command, 148, 153, 181-182
AUEP (AuditEndpoint) command, 148, 153, 177, 181
Authentication
attributes and, 188
basic description of, 33, 516
call signaling and, 155, 188
of CMs, 134-135
codes, 60-62
IKE and, 48-49
nonces and, 37
RADIUS protocol and, 432
Authenticator field, 433
Authent Info message, 139
Auth Invalid message, 139
Authorization
basic description of, 516
QoS and, 294-298
Authorization Request message, 134
Authorized envelope, 318
Authorized state, 294-298, 321
Auth Reject message, 139
Auth Reply message, 139
Auth Request message, 139
Auto-Commit flag, 318, 319-320, 321

BAF (Bellcore Automatic Message Accounting Format), 416
Bandplans, 8
Bandwidth parameter, 184-185, 244, 246-247
BASE64 encoding, 187, 249
basic description of, 516, 545-548
DCS and, 249, 257, 258, 275
Baseline Privacy Key Management (BPKM) protocol, 55, 107, 131
basic description of, 132-139
message formats, 138-139
Basic Encoding Rules (BER), 455, 456
BCID (Billing Correlation ID), 335, 410, 412, 427-428, 517
Bearer channel security, 195-205, 549-550
Bellcore, 416, 486
Bellcore Automatic Message Accounting Format (BAF), 416
BER (Basic Encoding Rules), 455, 456
Berners-Lee, Tim, 2-3
Best Effort Service Flow, 127
Billing Correlation ID (BCID), 335, 410, 412, 427-428, 517
BLV (Busy Line Verify) service, 239, 280-282
basic description of, 517
MT package and, 489-492
BNF (Backus-Naur Form), 516, 168
BPI+ (Baseline Privacy Interface Plus), 86, 132
basic description of, 130-141
MAC header format and, 102, 140-141
QoS and, 299
BPI_DOWN message, 140
BPI_UP message, 140
BPKM (Baseline Privacy Key Management) protocol, 55, 107, 131
basic description of, 132-139
message formats, 138-139
BPKM-REQ messages, 107
BPKM-RSP messages, 107
Bucket(s)
basic description of, 304-309
flowspecs, 309-311
Bucket depth value, 309
Bucket rate value, 309
Burst Descriptor field, 111-112
Business issues, 505-512
Busy Line Verify (Busy Line Verify) service. See also BLV (Busy Line Verify) service
Busy tone signal, 489, 490
BYE message, 253, 273, 274

CA (Call Agent), 146-147, 180, 217-219
basic description of, 518
call flow and, 210-215
clustered, 191-192
DCS and, 227-229, 260
digit maps and, 168
key management and, 206
ResponseAck parameter and, 164
RTP packets and, 199-200
three-way calling and, 221-224
Cable access networks. See also CMTS (Cable Modem Termination System); PacketCable project
basic description of, 79-141
DOCSIS protocol layers and, 87-118
downstream synchronization and, 83
establishing IP connectivity for, 85
initialization and, 82-86
obtaining upstream parameters for, 83
ranging and, 83-85
registering process and, 86
synchronizing time of day for, 85-86
transferring operational parameters for, 86
upstream transmission and, 98-99
Cable Laboratories, 13-14, 438. See also PacketCable project
cablemodem.com, 81, 390
Cable modems (CMs). See also cable access networks; PacketCable project
authentication and, 134-135
basic description of, 79, 517
BPI+ and, 131, 139-140
BPKM and, 132-139
contention resolution and, 118-121
DOCSIS specifications and, 79-82
downstream data flow through, 99-100
MAC layer and, 100-108, 118, 121-125
power-on initialization and, 389-408
provisioning mechanisms and, 398-404
ranging and, 84, 112
Reed-Solomon Forward Error Correction and, 98
Service Flows and, 126
synchronizing time of day and, 85-86
transferring operational parameters and, 86
X.509 certificates and, 139-140
Cable Modem Termination System (CMTS), 24, 55, 86, 284
basic description of, 17, 518
BPI+ and, 131, 132
BPKM and, 132-139
call waiting and, 218
contention resolution and, 118-121, 124-125
DOCSIS specifications and, 79-82
DQoS and, 170-172
DSC signaling and, 264, 266, 268
electronic surveillance and, 448-449, 451, 454, 467, 469-470
event messages and, 409
initialization and, 82-86
internetworking with PSTNs and, 496
MAC layer and, 100-108
MAP messages and, 115, 118-125
port numbers, 276
provisioning mechanisms and, 419, 420, 432
QoS and, 125-130, 289-298, 316-337, 345, 350-351, 359-363, 371, 431
ranging and, 84-85, 112-114
registering process and, 86
Service Flows and, 126-127
SIP messaging and, 237
SYNC messages and, 109-110
synchronizing time of day and, 85-86
TEKs and, 137-138
time slices and, 97
UCDs and, 83
upstream transmission and, 99
CALEA (Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act), 438-449, 510-512, 520
call signaling and, 448-449
compliance with, 445-446
framework, 441-444
Call(s). See also call signaling
blocking, 233, 425-426
forwarding, 233, 238-239, 258, 417, 425-426, 519
interrupt, 233
queuing, 233
return, 235, 417, 425-426
simultaneous, 232
state, maintenance of, 144
three-way, 220-224, 258
waiting, 217-219, 417, 425-426
Call_Answer message, 411, 429-430, 452
Call Content wiretap, 239, 440-441
Call_Disconnect message, 411, 430, 452-453, 471
Called_Party_ID attribute, 464, 467
Called_Party_Number attribute, 424, 426
Called-Party-Number field, 335-336
Caller ID, 216-217, 257-258, 260, 264-265, 475
Caller-Number field, 236
Caller-Type field, 236
Call_ID attribute, 461, 462, 463, 464, 466, 467
Call-ID: header, 243-244
CallID parameter, 152, 177
Calling_Party_ID attribute, 464, 467
Calling_Party_Number attribute, 424, 426
Call signaling, 284, 376. See also DCS (Distributed Call Signaling); NCS (Network-Based Call Signaling)
basic description of, 143-224, 518
electronic surveillance and, 448-453
encoding session descriptions for, 182-194
event packages and, 172-173
internetworking with PSTNs and, 476-480
message transmission and, 190-192
MGCP and, 145-182
Call_Termination_Cause attribute, 426, 430
Capabilities parameter, 152, 177
Carrier_Identification_Code attribute, 424, 429, 450, 451
Case_ID attribute, 461, 463, 464, 466, 467
Case-sensitivity, of commands, 150
CBC (Cipher Block Chaining) mode, 56, 519
CBR (Constant Bit Rate), 303, 312-313, 520
CCC (Call Content Connection) interface, 467-471, 518
CCChange message, 454, 461-462
CCC_ID attribute, 452, 462, 463
CCClose message, 454, 462
CCOpen message, 454, 463, 470
CCC-Port field, 422
CDC (Call Data Connection), 422, 453-457, 518
CDC-Port field, 422
CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), 2, 518
Certificates, digital, 41-43, 522
hierarchy of, 66-67, 139-140
revocation of, 76-77
root, 66-70
CF (Collection Function), 448, 470, 519
CFNA (Call Forward No Answer) feature, 238-239, 519
Charged-Number field, 336
Charge_Number attribute, 426, 430
CIC (Carrier Identification Code), 417, 479, 480, 519
CID (Circuit Identity), 479, 519
Ciphers. See also algorithms; ciphersuites
basic description of, 54-60
block, 54
stream, 54
Ciphersuite(s). See also ciphers
basic description of, 519
identifiers, 132
lists, 407
provisioning mechanisms and, 401, 402, 407
Circuit IDs
identification codes for, 479, 519
registration of, 476-477
Circuit-switched technology, 18
Class 5 switches, 509-511
Classes, of attack, 27-29
CLIENT-ACCEPT message, 349
CLIENT-ACCESS message, 348
CLIENT-OPEN message, 348
Client/server model, 432
ClientSI header, 346
Client-type field, 326, 343, 346
CMs (cable modems). See also cable access networks; PacketCable project
authentication and, 134-135
basic description of, 79, 517
BPI+ and, 131, 139-140
BPKM and, 132-139
contention resolution and, 118-121
DOCSIS specifications and, 79-82
downstream data flow through, 99-100
MAC layer and, 100-108, 118, 121-125
power-on initialization and, 389-408
provisioning mechanisms and, 398-404
ranging and, 84, 112
Reed-Solomon Forward Error Correction and, 98
Service Flows and, 126
synchronizing time of day and, 85-86
transferring operational parameters and, 86
X.509 certificates and, 139-140
CMS (Call Management Server), 17-18, 23-24, 146
basic description of, 518
BCID and, 410
business issues and, 508, 510-511
calls utilizing more than one, 501-502
DCS and, 260, 261, 284
digit maps and, 166-169
electronic surveillance and, 448-454, 469
event messages and, 409
internetworking with PSTNs and, 476-478, 480, 492
Kerberos and, 45-46
new specifications and, 501-502
provisioning mechanisms and, 423-424, 428-430, 436
QoS and, 292-294, 298-299
CMS (Cryptographic Message Syntax), 47, 405-408, 520
CMTS (Cable Modem Termination System), 24, 55, 86, 284
basic description of, 17, 518
BPI+ and, 131, 132
BPKM and, 132-139
call waiting and, 218
contention resolution and, 118-121, 124-125
DOCSIS specifications and, 79-82
DQoS and, 170-172
DSC signaling and, 264, 266, 268
electronic surveillance and, 448-449, 451, 454, 467, 469-470
event messages and, 409
initialization and, 82-86
internetworking with PSTNs and, 496
MAC layer and, 100-108
MAP messages and, 115, 118-125
port numbers, 276
provisioning mechanisms and, 419, 420, 432
QoS and, 125-130, 289-298, 316-337, 345, 350-351, 359-363, 371, 431
ranging and, 84-85, 112-114
registering process and, 86
Service Flows and, 126-127
SIP messaging and, 237
SYNC messages and, 109-110
synchronizing time of day and, 85-86
TEKs and, 137-138
time slices and, 97
UCDs and, 83
upstream transmission and, 99
CMTS IP address field, 333-334
CMTS-Port field, 334
CN field, 70
C-Num field, 326-327, 343, 346
Coax, 5-9. See also cable access networks; HFC (Hybrid Fiber Coax)
Codec(s)
basic description of, 519
bearer channel security and, 202-206
call signaling and, 154-156, 186, 202-206, 221-222
changes, mid-call, 276-279
new, 503-504
QoS and, 300-304
three-way calling and, 221-222
Colon (:), 151
Code field, 138, 432
Command(s). See also Commands (listed by name)
format of, 149-166
headers, 147-166
NCS, 147-166
parameters, 151-166
responses, 174-182
Commands (listed by name). See also Commands
AUCX (AuditConnection) command, 148, 153, 181-182
AUEP (AuditEndpoint) command, 148, 153, 177, 181
CRCX (CreateConnection) command, 148, 149, 153, 178-179, 193, 206-208, 210, 214, 223, 492
DLCX (DeleteConnection) command, 148, 151, 153, 180, 224, 423-424
egrep command, 168
MDCX (ModifyConnection) command, 148, 149, 153, 161, 163, 179-180, 193, 209, 214, 216, 218, 221, 223
NTFY (Notify) command, 148-149, 153, 166-167, 180, 206, 214-215
RQNT (NotificationRequest) command, 148, 149, 153, 161-162, 180, 206, 210, 214, 492
RSIP (RestartInProgress) command, 148, 153, 182, 206-209
COMMIT message, 359-360
Commit-Not-Allowed flag, 318, 319, 320-321
Committed Information Rate Service Flow, 127
Committed state, 294-298, 321, 350
Common Open Policy Service (COPS), 21, 322-338, 520
connection, initialization of, 348-349
header formats, 325-329
messages, 325-329, 340, 342-348
protocol operation and, 339-391
Concatenation Header, 104
conference mode, 156
Conferencing, in-home, 233
Confidentiality, 33
ConfigMax2Enable variable, 382
Configuration
files, 394-398
management, 376
Configuration Change Count field, 110-111
connection-address field, 246
Connection Data field, 184
Connection Data parameter, 244, 245-246
ConnectionID parameter, 156
ConnectionIDs, 156, 177, 179, 207-209
ConnectionMode parameter, 156, 177
ConnectionParameters parameter, 157, 177
Contact: header, 243-244
Content-Length: header, 243-244
Content-Type: header, 243-244
Contention
minislots, 84, 119-120
resolution, 118-121, 124-125
Contents field, 343, 346
Control field, 107
COPS (Common Open Policy Service), 21, 322-338, 520
connection, initialization of, 348-349
header formats, 325-329
messages, 325-329, 340, 342-348
protocol operation and, 339-391
CPUs (central processing units), 60, 295, 300
CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check)
basic description of, 521, 543-544
cable access networks and, 103, 104, 108
MAC and, 108
CRC field, 104
CRCX (CreateConnection) command, 148, 149, 153, 178-179, 193
internetworking with PSTNs and, 492
key management and, 206-208
NCS call flow and, 210, 214
three-way calling and, 223
Credits, use of the term, 304
CRLF (Carriage Return/Line Feed) pairs, 149, 174, 520
Cryptography. See also encryption; specific algorithms
basic description of, 33-38
conventional, 44-45
digital certificates and, 41-43
digital signatures and, 40-41
IPsec and, 50-51
CSeq: header, 243-244
C-Type field, 327, 343, 346
Customer premise equipment, 10-13

DA (Destination address) field, 103, 106, 108
Data Acknowledge IE, 123
Database_ID attribute, 425
Database_Query message, 411, 425
Databases, 24, 411, 425. See also LNP (Local Number Portability) database
Data Grant IE, 123
Data-Over-Cable Service Interface Specifications (DOCSIS)
basic description of, 42, 79-82, 500, 512
cable modem initialization, 389-408
DES and, 55
DQoS and, 170-171, 299-300
electronic surveillance and, 471
flowspecs and, 311-314
MAC and, 102-103, 109
MAP message and, 121-125
modulation schemes and, 94-96
protocol layers, 86-117
provisioning mechanisms and, 394, 389-408, 419
QoS and, 290, 291, 295, 299-300, 311-314
Radio Frequency Interface specification, 389-390
Real Time Polling, 313
time slices and, 96-97
TLV (Type-Length-Value) encoding and, 110-111
DCS (Distributed Call Signaling), 14-15, 241. See also Call signaling
architecture, 227
basic description of, 225-285, 522
call flow for, 228-229
electronic surveillance and, 464
establishing a connection with, 254-274
extensions, 257
features, implementing, 275-283
intelligent MTAs and, 230-234
internetworking with PSTNs and, 480, 492
NCS versus, 511-512
personal privacy and, 283-285
Proxy, 259-263, 267, 269, 271, 275, 424
QoS and, 294, 298-299
retransmission strategy and, 252-254
Session Description parameters, 244-249
signaling, details of, 250-285
SIP and, 234-249
tearing down calls and, 274-275
timers, 252-254
trusted domains and, 230
Dcs-Also: header, 238-239
Dcs-Anonymity: header, 236-237, 276
Dcs-Billing-ID: header, 241, 264
Dcs-Billing-Info: header, 239-241, 262, 264, 268
Dcs-Caller: header, 235-236, 260, 264-265
Dcs-Gate: header, 237, 262, 264, 268, 270
Dcs-Osps: header, 239, 251
Dcs-Replaces: header, 239, 276
Dcs-State: header, 237-238
Decision Header object, 342
DECISION message, 349
Decryption. See also encryption
BPI+ and, 131
in CBC mode, 56
DES and, 55-58
digital signatures and, 40-41
provisioning mechanisms and, 303
of RTP packets, 202-206
Demarcation point, 447
Denial of service attacks, 28-29
Department of Justice, 443
DER (Distinguished Encoding Rules), 401, 455, 522
DES (Data Encryption Standard) algorithm, 54-58, 521. See also Triple DES (3DES)
Destination IP Address field, 332
Destination Port field, 332
DetectEvents parameter, 158, 170, 177
DF (Delivery Function), 422, 447-454, 460, 467-471, 521
DF-Address field, 422
DF-DF-Key field, 422
DF-IP-Address-for-CDC field, 337
DF-Port-for-CDC field, 337
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), 85, 86, 390
provisioning mechanisms and, 374
obtaining IP connectivity information with, 391-392
power-on initialization and, 389-408
DHCPDISCOVER message, 391
DHCPOFFER message, 391, 393
DHCPREQUEST message, 392
Diffie, Whitfield, 39
Diffserv network, 323
Digital certificates, 41-43, 522
hierarchy of, 66-67, 139-140
revocation of, 76-77
root, 66-70
Digital signatures, 40-41
Digit collection, 143
Digit map, 23, 143, 166-169, 481, 522
DigitMap parameter, 158, 177
Diplexers, 9
Direction field, 331
Direction_Indicator attribute, 424, 425, 427, 430, 431
Distributed Call Signaling (DCS), 14-15, 241. See also Call signaling
architecture, 227
basic description of, 225-285, 522
call flow for, 228-229
electronic surveillance and, 464
establishing a connection with, 254-274
extensions, 257
features, implementing, 275-283
intelligent MTAs and, 230-234
internetworking with PSTNs and, 480, 492
NCS versus, 511-512
personal privacy and, 283-285
Proxy, 259-263, 267, 269, 271, 275, 424
QoS and, 294, 298-299
retransmission strategy and, 252-254
Session Description parameters, 244-249
signaling, details of, 250-285
SIP and, 234-249
tearing down calls and, 274-275
timers, 252-254
trusted domains and, 230
Distinctive ringing, 232
DLCX (DeleteConnection) command, 148, 151, 153, 180, 224, 423-424
DOCSIS (Data-Over-Cable Service Interface Specifications)
basic description of, 42, 79-82, 500, 512
cable modem initialization, 389-408
DES and, 55
DQoS and, 170-171, 299-300
electronic surveillance and, 471
flowspecs and, 311-314
MAC and, 102-103, 109
MAP message and, 121-125
modulation schemes and, 94-96
protocol layers, 86-117
provisioning mechanisms and, 394, 389-408, 419
QoS and, 290, 291, 295, 299-300, 311-314
Radio Frequency Interface specification, 389-390
Real Time Polling, 313
time slices and, 96-97
TLV (Type-Length-Value) encoding and, 110-111
DoJ (Department of Justice), 443
Domains. See also FQDNs (Fully Qualified Domain Names)
basic description of, 501
new specifications and, 501-502
trusted, 230, 236
DOSA (Distributed Open Systems Architecture), 226-227, 522
Downstream channel ID, 111, 113
Downstream Channel ID field, 111
Downstream synchronization, 83
DP (DCS-Proxy), 227-230, 260-280
mid-call codec changes and, 278-279
provisioning mechanisms and, 424
trusted domains and, 230
DPC (Destination Point Codes), 480, 521
DQoS (Dynamic Quality of Service), 159, 218. See also QoS (Quality of Service)
basic description of, 287-288
customer expectations and, 292
DOCSIS and, 299-300
DSC signaling and, 262, 267-269
error codes, 336
gates and, 146, 292-293, 321, 359-371
internetworking with PSTNs and, 481
INVITE message and, 235
mid-call codec changes and, 277
NCS and, 170-172
operator expectations and, 292
protocol operation and, 339-391
responses to CRCX and, 178-179
RSVP and, 291
two-stage commitment and, 298
DS1 interface, 482
DS3 interface, 482
DSA-ACK message, 107, 126, 319
DSAP (Destination Service Access Point) field, 106
DSA-REQ message, 107, 126, 128-129, 300, 313-320
DSA-RSP message, 107, 126
DSC-ASK message, 107
DSCP (DiffServe Code Point), 522
DSC-REQ message, 107, 126, 300, 313-314, 362
DSC-RSP message, 107, 126
DSD-RSP message, 107
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line), 4-5, 512
DSP (Digital Signal Processing), 522
DTMF signaling, 203, 302-303
Dynamic payload mappings, 190
Dynamic Service Addition, 126
Dynamic Service Flows, 128-130. See also Service Flows

ECB (Electronic Codebook), 56
Echo cancellation flags, 154
eContent field, 47
eContentType field, 47
EDE mode, 56
EFF (Electronic Frontier Foundation), 55, 442, 443
egrep command, 168
EHDR (Extended Header) field, 102, 103, 106, 140-141
EI (Emergency Interrupt), 239, 280-282, 489-492
Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF). See EFF (Electronic Frontier Foundation)
Electronic surveillance
architecture, 446-448
basic description of, 437-472
call signaling and, 448-453
CALEA and, 438-448
CCC (Call Content Connection) interface and, 467-471
Class 5 switches and, 510-511
complications regarding, 471-472
types of, 349-441
Electronic_Surveillance_DF_Security attribute, 450, 451
Electronic_Surveillance_Indication attribute, 449, 450
Electronic-Surveillance-Parameters object, 329, 337
Element Identifier field, 412
Element Type field, 412
ENABLE field, 141
Encryption. See also Algorithms; Decryption
BPI+ and, 131-141
call signaling and, 159, 185, 188, 199-206
DES and, 55-58
IPsec and, 50-51
of KEKs, 136-137
new algorithms for, 504
provisioning mechanisms and, 401, 404
of RTP packets, 199-206
session descriptions and, 185, 188
SIP messaging and, 235
of TEKs, 137-138
Encryption Keys parameter, 244, 247
Error-code field, 348, 355
Errors, 137, 385-386
gate coordination and, 355-356
QoS and, 336, 348, 355-356
Error-sub-code field, 348
Ethernet
basic description of, 11-12, 524
downstream data flow and, 100
electronic surveillance and, 447
MAC Management messages and, 107
standard, 11
Event Message Identifier field, 412
Event messages
basic description of, 408-410
contents of, 423-437
format of, 412-423
types of, 410-437
Event-Generation-Info field, 334-335, 369
Event-Generation-Info object, 329
Event Object field, 414
Event packages, 172-173, 481, 483
Events. See Event messages; Event packages
EventStates parameter, 177-178
Event_Time attribute, 461, 462, 464, 466, 467
Event Time field, 413
Expansion IE, 123-124
Expires: header, 243-244

Fault management, 375
FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation), 30, 440, 443
FC (Frame Control) field, 102, 105-106
FCC (Federal Communications Commission), 8-9, 90
basic description of, 524
CALEA and, 442
FEC parity bits, 98-99
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). See FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation)
Federal Communications Commission (FCC). See FCC (Federal Communications Commission)
Fiber (distribution) nodes, 8
Fiber to the Home (FTTH) technology, 512-513
Fields (listed by name)
Acct-data field, 240
address field, 245
address-type field, 245, 246
Algorithm field, 334
Authenticator field, 433
Burst Descriptor field, 111-112
Called-Party-Number field, 335-336
Caller-Number field, 236
Caller-Type field, 236
CCC-Port field, 422
CDC-Port field, 422
Charged-Number field, 336
Client-type field, 326, 343, 346
CMTS IP address field, 333-334
CMTS-Port field, 334
CN field, 70
C-Num field, 326-327, 343, 346
Code field, 138, 432
Configuration Change Count field, 110-111
connection-address field, 246
Connection Data field, 184
Contents field, 343, 346
Control field, 107
CRC field, 104
C-Type field, 327, 343, 346
DA (Destination address) field, 103, 106, 108
Destination IP Address field, 332
Destination Port field, 332
DF-Address field, 422
DF-DF-Key field, 422
DF-IP-Address-for-CDC field, 337
DF-Port-for-CDC field, 337
Direction field, 331
Downstream Channel ID field, 111
DSAP (Destination Service Access Point) field, 106
eContent field, 47
eContentType field, 47
EHDR (Extended Header) field, 102, 103, 106, 140-141
Element Identifier field, 412
Element Type field, 412
ENABLE field, 141
Error-code field, 348, 355
Error-sub-code field, 348
Event Message Identifier field, 412
Event-Generation-Info field, 334-335, 369
Event Object field, 414
Event Time field, 413
FC (Frame Control) field, 102, 105-106
Flags field, 325, 331-332, 334, 335, 337, 345
Frequency field, 111
Gate Command Type field, 344, 347
Gate ID field, 347, 368, 370-371
Gate-Spec field, 369-370
Header Check Sequence (HCS) field, 103, 105
Identifier field, 138, 433
LEN field, 103, 105, 140, 141
Length field, 110, 326, 328, 343, 346-347, 353, 433-434
Location-Routing-Number field, 336
MAC_PARM field, 102, 105-106
Maximum Packet Size field, 333
Media Announcements field, 189, 249
Message length field, 326, 343, 346, 352
Message Type field, 352
Minimum Policed Unit field, 309, 333
Minislot size field, 111
msgLen field, 106
network-type field, 245, 246
Op-code field, 325, 343, 345
Origin field, 182-183, 245
Peak Data Rate field, 333
Preamble Pattern field, 111
PR field, 198
Primary-Record-Keeping-Server-IP-Address field, 334
Primary-Record-Keeping-Server-Port field, 335
Priority field, 413
Protocol ID field, 331
Protocol version field, 182
PROV_SNMP_ENTITY field, 392, 393
Rate field, 333
Remote-Gate-ID field, 334
Remote-Gate-Info field, 368
Reserved field, 332, 335, 337, 353
Reverse T-spec field, 355
Routing-Number field, 336
S-Num field, 328, 344, 347
S-Type field, 328, 344, 347
SA (Source address) field, 103, 106
Secondary-Record-Keeping-Server-IP-Address field, 335
Secondary-Record-Keeping-Server-Port field, 335
Security Key field, 334
Sequence number field, 198, 413
Session Class field, 332
session-ID field, 245
signedAuthPack field, 46-47
Slack Term field, 333
snrccomt field, 172
snrcresv field, 172
Source IP Address field, 332
Source Port field, 332
SSAP (Source Service Access Point) field, 107
SSRC field, 198
Status field, 413-414
Subscriber-ID field, 368, 370-371
Symbol Rate field, 111
Time field, 185, 246
Timestamp field, 198
TOGGLE field, 141
Token Bucket Size field, 333
Token Bucket Rate field, 333
TOS field, 397
Transaction Identifier field, 344, 347
Transaction-ID field, 368, 370-371
Type field, 108, 110, 140, 353, 354, 434
Type/Len field, 104
username field, 245
Value field, 354, 434
Version field, 108, 141, 245, 325, 345
Version Identifier field, 412
X-pc-codecs field, 187
Filters, 99
First_Call_Calling_Party_Number attribute, 426
Flags field, 325, 331-332, 334, 335, 337, 345
Flowspecs
basic description of, 309-311
DOCSIS and, 311-314
SDP and, 311-314
FM (Frequency Modulation), 87
Forwarded_Number attribute, 428
Forward slash (/), 187
FQDNs (Fully Qualified Domain Names), 75, 151, 183
basic description of, 524
DSC signaling and, 256, 262, 268
identity management and, 375-376
provisioning mechanisms and, 375-376, 392, 393-394, 396
session descriptions and, 183
SIP messaging and, 237
Fragmentation Extended Header, 104
Fragmentation Header, 104
Frame, use of the term, 307
Frequency field, 111
From: header, 235, 243-244
FTTH (Fiber to the Home) technology, 512-513

G.711 (PCMU) codec, 156, 247
internetworking with PSTNs and, 495
new specifications and, 503-504
QoS and, 295, 302, 303, 312
three-way calling and, 221
G.728 codec, 303, 312
G.729 codec, 155
G.729E codec, 303, 312
Gate(s). See also GC (Gate Controller)
allocating, 349
basic description of, 525
closing, 350-351
control messages, 340-342
coordination, 293, 351-352, 359-371
creating, 349-350
deleting, 350-351
pairs, 293
QoS and, 292-293, 316-321
quartets, 293
querying, 350
setting, 349-350
GATE-ALLOC-ACK message, 330, 340, 365-366, 367
GATE-ALLOC-ERR message, 330, 340, 355
GATE-ALLOC message, 330, 340, 342-344, 349, 364-365, 367
GATE-CLOSE-ACK message, 353, 358, 363, 368, 371
GATE-CLOSE-ERR message, 358
GATE-CLOSE message, 351-353, 357, 362-363, 368, 371
Gate Controller, 267-268
Gate Command Type field, 344, 347
Gate ID field, 347, 368, 370-371
Gate-ID object, 329, 331
Gate-IDs, 170-172, 276, 293, 316-317, 347-348
GATE-INFO-ACK message, 330, 341-342
GATE-INFO message, 330, 341
GATE-INFO-ERR message, 330, 342, 347, 355
GATE-OPEN-ACK message, 268, 353, 357, 360-361, 371
GATE-OPEN-ERR message, 353, 357
Gate-OPEN message, 316-317, 351-353, 357-361, 367, 371
GATE-SET-ACK message, 330, 341, 350, 367
GATE-SET-ERR message, 330, 341, 355
GATE-SET message, 320, 329-330, 340-341, 349-350, 367, 368, 451, 452, 453
Gate-Spec field, 369-370
Gate-spec object, 329, 331-333
GC (Gate Controller), 227, 260, 292-293, 298-300, 321-324, 345, 348-350, 525
GetBulkRequest message, 385, 387-388
GET message, 384
GetNextRequest message, 385, 387-388
GetRequest message, 385, 386, 387
GetResponse message, 385, 387
GrantsPerInterval parameter, 314

Hairpinned calls, 239
Half-calls, 292
Handle object, 325, 343, 346
Hashes, 36-38. See also HMAC (Hashed Message Authentication Check)
algorithms; MMH (Multilinear Modular Hash)
Header attribute, 424, 425, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431
Header Check Sequence (HCS) field, 103, 105
Headers (listed by name)
Call-ID: header, 243-244
ClientSI header, 346
Concatenation Header, 104
Contact: header, 243-244
Content-Length: header, 243-244
Content-Type: header, 243-244
CSeq: header, 243-244
Dcs-Also: header, 238-239
Dcs-Anonymity: header, 236-237, 276
Dcs-Billing-ID: header, 241, 264
Dcs-Billing-Info: header, 239-241, 262, 264, 268
Dcs-Caller: header, 235-236, 260, 264-265
Dcs-Gate: header, 237, 262, 264, 268, 270
Dcs-Osps: header, 239, 251
Dcs-Replaces: header, 239, 276
Dcs-State: header, 237-238
Expires: header, 243-244
Fragmentation Extended Header, 104
Fragmentation Header, 104
From: header, 235, 243-244
Payload Header Suppression Header, 105
Proxy-Require: header, 234, 243-244
Record-Route: header, 243-244, 268, 270
Request Frame Header, 104, 105
Require: header, 234, 244
Route: header, 244
Service Flow Extended Header, 104
Timing header, 104
To: header, 244
Via: header, 244, 262-269
Hellman, Martin, 39
Hertz (Hz), 88
HFC (Hybrid Fiber Coax), 6-7, 9, 17, 24, 526
business issues and, 509
new specifications and, 507
QoS and, 287, 289-290
three-way calling and, 220-224
HMAC (Hashed Message Authentication Check) algorithms, 36-38, 62-64
attributes and, 188
basic description of, 526
bearer channel security and, 200-201, 205-206, 549
key management and, 207
obtaining TEKs and, 135
provisioning mechanisms and, 401, 403, 407, 408
HMAC_KEY_D message, 137
HMAC_KEY_U message, 136-137
Home networks
basic description of, 10-11
phone wiring for, 12-13
power lines and, 12
HomePNA specifications, 12
Hookflash, 217-219
Hot-line, 234
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), 3
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), 393
Hyphen (-), 183, 184, 245

IAPs (Internet Access Points), 446, 448, 471
Identifier field, 138, 433
Identity management, 375-376
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), 11, 333, 355, 526
IEs (Information Elements), 117, 121-125
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), 14, 339, 476, 499-500, 526
IKE (Internet Key Exchange), 503-504, 527
basic description of, 48-49
RADIUS protocol and, 432
Inactive mode, 156
INFORM message, 392
InformRequest message, 385, 389
Initialization
basic description of, 82-86
BPI+, 134-135, 139-140
cable access networks and, 82-86
of COPS connections, 348-349
internetworking with PSTNs and, 476-477
power-on, 389-408
upstream transmission and, 99
Initial Maintenance IE, 122-123
Integrity, of data, 33
Intelligent call forwarding, 233
Intelligent_Peripheral_Usage_Start message, 411
Intelligent_Peripheral_Usage_Stop message, 411
Interconnect_(Signaling)_Start message, 411, 428
Interconnect_(Signaling)_Stop message, 411, 428-429
Internet Drafts, 400-401
Internet Protocol (IP). See IP (Internet Protocol)
Intserv network, 323
Invasion of privacy, 29
INVITE message, 229, 234-235, 238-241, 250-251, 253-272, 275-282
IP (Internet Protocol), 19-23, 25-26. See also IPsec
address field, 345
anonymity and, 282-283
basic description of, 527
business issues and, 509
cable access networks and, 82, 85, 87
call signaling and, 144, 158, 172, 189, 191
connectivity, establishing, 85
connectivity information, 391-392
DCS and, 232, 258, 267-271, 282-283
electronic surveillance and, 438-448, 467, 468
internetworking with PSTNs and, 476-480, 486
NAT and, 282-283
new specifications and, 502, 509-511
packets, format of, 19-20
protocol layers and, 87
provisioning mechanisms and, 374, 391-392, 394, 397, 408
QoS and, 287-289, 306, 317, 324, 333, 345
telephony root certificates, 73-74, 77
three-way calling and, 222
ipad string, 63
IPsec, 48-54, 195-196, 409
basic description of, 527
Grace period, 402, 407
internals, 52-54
NCS and, 206-209
new specifications and, 503
provisioning mechanisms and, 401-403, 407
QoS and, 299, 309-310, 371
RADIUS protocol and, 432
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), 4-5, 9
ISO (International Standards Organization), 103, 108, 527
ISPs (Internet Service Providers)
DCS and, 226, 275
home networks and, 10
ISTP (Internet Signaling Transport Protocol), 476, 480, 527
ISUP (Integrated Services Digital Networks User Part), 476-477, 480, 483-486, 527
ITU (International Telecommunications Union), 64-65, 302, 479, 499-500
basic description of, 527
digital certificates and, 42
PacketCable project and, 14
IV (Initialization Vector), 57

Jitter buffers, 304-309
Jitter parameter, 157
J-STD-025, 443, 444

KDC (Kerberos Key Distribution Center), 398-399, 528
Keep-Alive messages, 349
KEK (Key Encryption Key)
basic description of, 79, 528
BPI+ and, 134
BPKM and, 133
Kerberos protocol. See also KDC (Kerberos Key Distribution Center)
basic description of, 528
PKINIT and, 46
provisioning mechanisms and, 397-400, 402, 404-405, 408
Rekey message and, 406
tickets, 45
Key(s), 34-49, 58-59
basic description of, 34-38, 528
BPI+ and, 135-136
derivation of, 136-137
management of, 38-49, 206-209
pre-shared, 39
Key Derivation Function, 200-202
Key Reject message, 139
Key Reply message, 137-139
Key Request message, 139
KRB_AP_REQ message, 400-402, 408
KRB_AS_REQ message, 46-47, 77, 399

Latency parameter, 157
LDP (Local Decision Point), 322
Leaf objects, 383
LEAs (Law Enforcement Agencies), 438-448, 528
LEN field, 103, 105, 140, 141
Length field, 110, 326, 328, 343, 346-347, 353, 433-434
LF (Line Feed) character, 149, 174, 529
Line Package, 172-173
LNP (Local Number Portability) database, 243, 478
Local
bridging, 233
-Committed state, 321
system certificates, 74-76
LocalConnectionDescriptor parameter, 177-179, 208
LocalConnectionOptions parameter, 152-153, 158-159, 177, 206, 208
Local System Certification Authority, 75-76
Location_Routing_Number attribute, 430
Location-Routing-Number field, 336
LSB (Least Significant Bit), 95-96, 412-413, 418-421
basic description of, 529
Rekey message and, 407

MAC (Media Access Control) layer, 41-42, 70
basic description of, 100-108, 529
BPI+ and, 131
headers, 102-106, 140-141
Management, 109-117
MTA and, 70
QoS and, 300, 313
registration, 132
service identifiers and, 109
SYNC messages and, 109-110
TLV (Type-Length-Value) encoding and, 110-111
MAC (Message Authentication Code), 36, 41, 61-62, 196-199, 203-204, 529
MAC_PARM field, 102, 105-106
MAP (upstream bandwidth allocation map) message, 107, 114-125
basic description of, 121-125
contention resolution and, 118-121
information elements, 117
Service Flows and, 126
Mapping addresses, 476-477, 479-480
Map Reject message, 139
Map Reply message, 139
Map Request message, 139
MaxEndPointIds parameter, 159
Maximum Datagram Size value, 309
Maximum Packet Size field, 333
MaximumSustainedRate parameter, 314
Maximum Transmission Rate parameter, 304, 306
MCNS (Multimedia Cable Network System), 80, 529
MDCX (ModifyConnection) command, 148, 149, 153, 161, 163, 179-180, 193
caller ID and, 216
call waiting and, 218
NCS call flow and, 209, 214
three-way calling and, 221, 223
Media-Connection-Event-Info object, 329, 335-336
Media Announcements field, 189, 249
Media Announcements parameter, 244, 249
megahertz (MHz), 88
Message length field, 326, 343, 346, 352
Messages (listed by name)
Accounting_Request message, 436
ACK message, 21, 229, 254, 270-274, 279
Answer message, 454, 460-461
Authent Info message, 139
Auth Invalid message, 139
Authorization Request message, 134
Auth Reject message, 139
Auth Reply message, 139
Auth Request message, 139
BPI_DOWN message, 140
BPI_UP message, 140
BYE message, 253, 273, 274
Call_Answer message, 411, 429-430, 452
Call_Disconnect message, 411, 430, 452-453, 471
CCChange message, 454, 461-462
CCClose message, 454, 462
CCOpen message, 454, 463, 470
CLIENT-ACCEPT message, 349
CLIENT-ACCESS message, 348
CLIENT-OPEN message, 348
COMMIT message, 359-360
Database_Query message, 411, 425
DECISION message, 349
DHCPDISCOVER message, 391
DHCPOFFER message, 391, 393
DHCPREQUEST message, 392
DSA-ACK message, 107, 126, 319
DSA-REQ message, 107, 126, 128-129, 300, 313-320
DSA-RSP message, 107, 126
DSC-ASK message, 107
DSC-REQ message, 107, 126, 300, 313-314, 362
DSC-RSP message, 107, 126
DSD-RSP message, 107
GATE-ALLOC-ACK message, 330, 340, 365-366, 367
GATE-ALLOC-ERR message, 330, 340, 355
GATE-ALLOC message, 330, 340, 342-344, 349, 364-365, 367
GATE-CLOSE-ACK message, 353, 358, 363, 368, 371
GATE-CLOSE-ERR message, 358
GATE-CLOSE message, 351-353, 357, 362-363, 368, 371
GATE-INFO-ACK message, 330, 341-342
GATE-INFO message, 330, 341
GATE-INFO-ERR message, 330, 342, 347, 355
GATE-OPEN-ACK message, 268, 353, 357, 360-361, 371
GATE-OPEN-ERR message, 353, 357
Gate-OPEN message, 316-317, 351-353, 357-361, 367, 371
GATE-SET-ACK message, 330, 341, 350, 367
GATE-SET-ERR message, 330, 341, 355
GATE-SET message, 320, 329-330, 340-341, 349-350, 367, 368
Gate_Set message, 451, 452, 453
GetBulkRequest message, 385, 387-388
GET message, 384
GetNextRequest message, 385, 387-388
GetRequest message, 385, 386, 387
GetResponse message, 385, 387
HMAC_KEY_D message, 137
HMAC_KEY_U message, 136-137
INFORM message, 392
InformRequest message, 385, 389
Intelligent_Peripheral_Usage_Start message, 411
Intelligent_Peripheral_Usage_Stop message, 411
Interconnect_(Signaling)_Start message, 411, 428
Interconnect_(Signaling)_Stop message, 411, 428-429
INVITE message, 229, 234-235, 238-241, 250-251, 253-272, 275-282
Key Reject message, 139
Key Reply message, 137-139
Key Request message, 139
KRB_AP_REQ message, 400-402, 408
KRB_AS_REQ message, 46-47, 77, 399
MAC_PARM field, 102, 105-106
MAP (upstream bandwidth allocation map) message, 107, 114-126
Map Reject message, 139
Map Reply message, 139
Map Request message, 139
NOTIFY message, 147, 170, 191
OK message, 254
Origination message, 454, 463-465
PA_PK_AS_REQ message, 46
QoS_Change message, 411, 431
QoS_Commit message, 431
QoS_End message, 408
QoS_Reserve message, 431
QoS_Start message, 408, 411, 427, 429, 460, 451, 452, 469, 471
Redirection message, 454, 465-466
Rekey message, 405-408
Release message, 466
Report message, 385
REPORT-STATE message, 349
RequestNotify message, 170
Reserved message, 139, 411
RINGING message, 229
SA Recovered message, 403
Service_Activation message, 411, 427-428
Service_Deactivation message, 411, 428
Service_Instance message, 411, 425-426, 450-451
SET message, 384
SetRequest message, 385, 387-389, 393, 397-398
Signaling_Start message, 411, 423-424, 436, 437, 450, 468
Signaling_Stop message, 411, 423-424
TEK Invaid message, 139
TerminationAttempt message, 454, 467
Time_Change message, 411, 430-431
TRAP message, 384, 385
Wake-up message, 404-405
Message Type field, 352
MG (Media Gateway). See also MGC (Media Gateway Controller)
basic description of, 474, 480-482, 529
electronic surveillance and, 448-449, 451-452
internetworking with PSTNs and, 474, 479-483, 488-495, 497
MGC (Media Gateway Controller), 261, 448-449. See also MG (Media Gateway)
basic description of, 474, 529
internetworking with PSTNs and, 474, 478-480, 491-492, 495-497
provisioning mechanisms and, 409, 423-424, 429-430
MGCP (Media Gateway Control Protocol), 145-182, 481, 529
MIB (Management Information Base), 376-378, 384
basic description of, 530
MTA configuration file and, 394
variables, 378-383
MIC (Message Integrity Check), 36, 530
MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) files, 302
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions), 530, 545
Minimum Policed Unit field, 309, 333
Minislots, 96-97, 111
Minislot size field, 111
Minus sign (-), 166
MMH (Multilinear Modular Hash), 196, 203-204, 530
Modulation
basic description of, 89
de-, 89
schemes, 87-98
MO package, 486-489
MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group), 100
MSB (Most Significant Bit), 95-96, 530
provisioning mechanisms and, 412-413, 417, 420-422
Rekey message and, 407
msgLen field, 106
MSO (Multiple Systems Operator), 17, 74-77, 82, 220, 226
bandplans and, 9
basic description of, 6, 530
business issues and, 507-511
electronic surveillance and, 438, 442-443, 447, 464
new specifications and, 502-503, 506-507, 513
MT (MF Terminating Protocol) package, 489-492
MTA_Endpoint_Name attribute, 424, 425
MTAs (Multimedia Terminal Adapters), 16-18, 22-24, 29, 530
anonymity and, 217
bearer channel security and, 196, 198-206
business issues and, 506-507, 510-511
call waiting and, 217-219
configuration file formats for, 394-398
Connection Data field and, 184
DCS and, 230, 235-251, 254-285
Device Certificates and, 70-73
digit maps and, 166-169
DOCSIS and, 82
HMAC algorithms and, 64
intelligent, 230-234
internetworking with PSTNs and, 474-475, 488, 496
Kerberos and, 45-48
key management and, 206-209
Manufacturer Certificates and, 70
message transmission and, 191
NCS call features and, 216-224
NCS call flow and, 210-215
new specifications and, 501-502, 503
non-embedded, 505
power-on initialization and, 389-408
provisioning mechanisms and, 374-378, 394-404
QoS and, 289-292, 297-302, 312-313, 317, 321-324, 349, 359-371, 431
responses and, 180
root certificates and, 66-70
SIP messaging and, 235-241
Telephony Certificates and, 75-76
three-way calling and, 220-224
trusted domains and, 230
untrusted, 315
MTA_UDP_Portnum attribute, 427, 431

Naming schemes, 481
NAT (Network Address Translation), 282-283
NCS (Network-Based Call Signaling), 193-195, 480-481, 492, 531. See also NCS Call Agent
anonymity and, 217
business issues and, 508
caller ID and, 216-217
call features, 215-224
call flow, 209-215
call waiting and, 217-219
commands, 147-166
DCS and, 225, 226-227, 511-512
DQoS and, 170-172
electronic surveillance and, 464
key management and, 206-209
MGCP and, 146-147
MIB variables and, 380-382
new specifications and, 501
parameters, 151-166
provisioning mechanisms and, 380-382, 397
QoS and, 293, 298-299
RTP packets and, 199-200
session descriptions and, 182-184
SignalRequests, encoding for, 164-166
three-way calling and, 220-224
TOS values, 397
transaction identifiers, 150
NCS Call Agent, 146-147, 180, 217-219
basic description of, 518
call flow and, 210-215
clustered, 191-192
DCS and, 227-229, 260
digit maps and, 168
key management and, 206
ResponseAck parameter and, 164
RTP packets and, 199-200
three-way calling and, 221-224
netwloop mode, 156
Network Management, need for, 375-376
Network orders, 101
network-type field, 245, 246
netwtest mode, 156
New_Call_ID attribute, 466
NID (Network Interface Device), 12-13, 531
NIU (Network Interface Units), 12-13, 531
No-Gate-Coordination flag, 316
No-Gate-Open flag, 317
NominalGrantInterval parameter, 314
Non-Real-Time Polling Service Flow, 127
Nonces, 37, 532
Nonrepudiation, 33
NotifiedEntity parameter, 160, 177
NOTIFY message, 147, 170, 191
Notify parameter, 170
NSA (National Security Agency), 54
NTFY (Notify) command, 148-149, 153, 166-167, 180, 206, 214-215
NumEndPoints parameter, 177

ObjectName type, 394
Objects (listed by name)
Activity-Count object, 329, 331
Decision Header object, 342
Electronic-Surveillance-Parameters object, 329, 337
Event-Generation-Info object, 329
Gate-ID object, 329, 331
Gate-spec object, 329, 331-333
Handle object, 325, 343, 346
Media-Connection-Event-Info object, 329, 335-336
PacketCable-Error object, 329, 336
Remote-Gate-Info object, 329, 333-334, 338-339
Subscriber-ID object, 329, 330, 342, 365
Transaction-ID object, 329-330, 342, 365
ObjectSyntax type, 394
ObservedEvents parameter, 160, 177
OC3 interface, 482
Octets received parameter, 157
Octets send parameter, 157
OI (Operator Interrupt), 489-492
OK message, 254
opad string, 63
OPC (Origination Point Codes), 480
Op-code field, 325, 343, 345
Origination message, 454, 463-465
Originating_SDP attribute, 462, 463
Origin field, 182-183, 245
Origin parameter, 244, 245
OSS (Operator Services Package), 486
Out-of-band mechanism, 38

PacketCable
architecture, 1, 16-19, 31
basic description of, 13-26
call signaling and, 144-224
DOCSIS and, 81-141
electronic surveillance and, 437-472, 443, 446-448
internetworking with PSTNs and, 473-497
protocol stacks and, 20-21
provisioning mechanisms and, 374-437
QoS and, 287-372
security and, 27-78
specifications, changes to, 499-505
Technical Reports, 147
PacketCable-Error object, 329, 336
Packets lost parameter, 157
Packets received parameter, 157
Packets sent parameter, 157
PA_PK_AS_REQ message, 46
Parameters. See also Parameters (listed by name)
NCS, 151-166
response, 176-178
session description, 182-189
Parameters (listed by name). See also Parameters
Attributes parameter, 244, 247-249
Bandwidth parameter, 184-185, 244, 246-247
CallID parameter, 152, 177
Capabilities parameter, 152, 177
Connection Data parameter, 244, 245-246
ConnectionID parameter, 156
ConnectionMode parameter, 156, 177
ConnectionParameters parameter, 157, 177
DetectEvents parameter, 158, 170, 177
DigitMap parameter, 158, 177
Encryption Keys parameter, 244, 247
EventStates parameter, 177-178
GrantsPerInterval parameter, 314
Jitter parameter, 157
Latency parameter, 157
LocalConnectionDescriptor parameter, 177-179, 208
LocalConnectionOptions parameter, 152-153, 158-159, 177, 206, 208
MaxEndPointIds parameter, 159
MaximumSustainedRate parameter, 314
Maximum Transmission Rate parameter, 304, 306
Media Announcements parameter, 244, 249
NominalGrantInterval parameter, 314
NotifiedEntity parameter, 160, 177
Notify parameter, 170
NumEndPoints parameter, 177
ObservedEvents parameter, 160, 177
Octets received parameter, 157
Octets send parameter, 157
Origin parameter, 244, 245
Packets lost parameter, 157
Packets received parameter, 157
Packets sent parameter, 157
Protocol Version parameter, 244
QoSParameterSets parameter, 128
QoSParameterSetType parameter, 314
QuarantineHandling parameter, 160, 170
ReasonCode parameter, 160
RemoteConnectionDescriptor parameter, 177-178
RequestedEvents parameter, 161, 170, 177
RequestIdentifier parameter, 163-164, 177
RequestInfo parameter, 163
ResourceID parameter, 177
ResponseAck parameter, 164, 177, 178-179, 193
RestartDelay parameter, 164
RestartMethod parameter, 164
ServiceFlowID parameter, 314
ServiceFlowReference parameter, 314
ServiceFlowScheduling parameter, 314
Session Name parameter, 244, 245
SignalRequests parameter, 164-165, 177
SpecificEndPointID parameter, 177
Time parameter, 244, 246
Token Bucket Size parameter, 304, 306
Token Bucket Rate parameter, 304-305
ToleratedGrantJitter parameter, 313
TrafficPriority parameter, 313, 314
UnsolicitedGrantSize parameter, 314
VersionSupported parameter, 177
X-pc-secret: parameter, 270
Payload Header Suppression Header, 105
Payload mappings, dynamic, 190
PBX (Private Branch Exchange), 232, 233, 533
PCESP (PacketCable Electronic Surveillance specification), 453, 455, 460, 467-472
PDP (Policy Decision Point), 322, 323-324
PDU (Protocol Data Unit) format, 103-104, 383-389, 533
Peak Data Rate field, 333
Peak rate value, 309
Pen Register wiretap, 239, 440
PEP (Policy Enforcement Point), 322, 324
Performance management, 376
PGP (Pretty Good Privacy), 49
Physical Media Dependent layer, 86-100
PKINIT
basic description of, 46-47, 533
digital certificates and, 77-78
Grace Period, 398
provisioning mechanisms and, 398-399, 401
pktcMtaDevCertificate variable, 378
pktcMtaDevConfigFile variable, 379, 393
pktcMtaDevControlTable variable, 379
pktcMtaDevCorrelationID variable, 378
pktcMtaDevEnabled variable, 378
pktcMtaDevEndPntCount variable, 378
pktcMtaDevEvControl variable, 379
pktcMtaDevEventTable variable, 379
pktcMtaDevEvSyslog variable, 379
pktcMtaDevEvThrottleThreshold variable, 379
pktcMtaDevEvThrottleInhibited variable, 379
pktcMtaDevEvThrottleInternal variable, 379
pktcMtaDevEvThrottleAdminSTatus variable, 379
pktcMtaDevFQDN variable, 378
pktcMtaDevHardwareVersion variable, 378
pktcMtaDevHttpAccess variable, 378
pktcMtaDevKerberosRealm variable, 378
pktcMtaDevMacAddress variable, 378
pktcMtaDevManufacturerCertificate variable, 378
pktcMtaDevPrincipalName variable, 378
pktcMtaDevProvisioningState variable, 378
pktcMtaDevResetNow variable, 378
pktcMtaDevSecurityTable variable, 378
pktcMtaDevSerialNumber variable, 378
pktcMtaDevServerBookState variable, 379
pktcMtaDevServerDhcp variable, 379
pktcMtaDevServerDns2 variable, 379
pktcMtaDevServerDns1 variable, 379
pktcMtaDevServGracePeriod variable, 378
pktcMtaDevServProviderCertificate variable, 378
pktcMtaDevSignature variable, 378
pktcMtaDevSnmpEntity variable, 379
pktcMtaDevTelephonyCertificate variable, 378
pktcMtaDevTgsTable variable, 379
pktcMtaDevTypeIdentifier variable, 378
pktcMtaProvisioningEnrollment variable, 379
pktcMtaProvisioningStatus variable, 380
pktcMtaProvisioningEnrollment variable, 393
pktcNcsDefCallSigTos variable, 381
pktcNcsDefMediaStreamTos variable, 381
pktcNcsDevCodecTable variable, 380
pktcNcsDevConnectionMode variable, 380
pktcNcsDevEchoCancellation variable, 380
pktcNcsDevR0Cadence variable, 380
pktcNcsDevR6Cadence variable, 380
pktcNcsDevR7Cadence variable, 380
pktcNcsDevSilenceSuppression variable, 380
pktcNcsEndPntConfigStutterDialToneTO variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigTdmin variable, 382
pktcNcsEndPntConfigCallAgentUdpPort variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigMWD variable, 382
pktcNcsEndPntConfigStatus variable, 382
pktcNcsEndPntConfigTable variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigCallAgentID variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigTdmax variable, 382
pktcNcsEndPntConfigMax1QEnable variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigRtoMax variable, 382
pktcNcsEndPntConfigPartialDialTO variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigTdinit variable, 382
pktcNcsEndPntConfigMax1 variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigTSMax variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigRtoInit variable, 382
pktcNcsEndPntConfigReorderToneTO variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigMessageWaitingTO variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigBusyToneTO variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigCritcalDialTo variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigOffHookWarnToneTO variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigRingingTO variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigLongDurationKeepAlive variable, 382
pktcNcsEndPntConfigThist variable, 382
pktcNcsEndPntConfigDialToneTO variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigMax2 variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigRingbackTO variable, 381
pktcNcsTosFormatSelector variable, 381
Plus sign (+), 166
PMD (Physical Media Dependent) layer, 100, 101, 110, 533
Policy layer, 299-300
Polynomials, generating, 543
Preamble prepend, 99
Preamble Pattern field, 111
PR field, 198
Primary Downstream Service Flow, 125
primary lines, 506-507
Primary-Record-Keeping-Server-IP-Address field, 334
Primary-Record-Keeping-Server-Port field, 335
Primary Upstream Service Flow, 125
Printable characters, 187, 415, 417, 418, 419
Priority field, 413
Privacy. See also BPI+ (Baseline Privacy Interface Plus)
-advocate groups, 443-444
DCS and, 283-285
Private (secret) keys, 39
Profiles, 145
PROP property, 185, 247
Protected fields, 543
Protocol(s). See also specific protocols
layers, 86-117
neutral, signaling, 298
operation, 339-371
stacks, 20-21
Protocol ID field, 331
Protocol version field, 182
Protocol Version parameter, 244
Prototype Classifier, 317
PROV_SNMP_ENTITY field, 392, 393
Provisioning
basic description of, 373-437
BCID and, 410
event messages, 408-410
power-on initialization and, 389-408
server certificate, 77-78
Proxy-Require: header, 234, 243-244
PSK (Phase Shift Keying), 90-92, 534
PSTNs (Public Switched Telephone Networks), 17-19, 22-26, 143-144, 471-472
anonymity and, 217
basic description of, 18
BLV operation and, 280-282
business issues and, 508
caller ID and, 265
DCS and, 225, 230-234, 238-239, 251, 276, 280-282
EI operation and, 280-282
electronic surveillance and, 30, 441, 443, 451, 464
internetworking architecture for, 473-497
INVITE message and, 251
MGCP and, 145-146
MO package and, 486-489
NCS call features and, 216-224
NCS call flow and, 210-215
new specifications and, 500-505
provisioning mechanisms and, 373, 411, 418, 428, 430
QoS and, 303, 319-320
SIP messaging and, 238-239
subscriber fraud and, 28

QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation), 93-94, 535
downstream data flow and, 99-100
time slices and, 97
Q-channel, 91-92
QoS (Quality of Service), 21, 26, 496, 513. See also DQoS (Dynamic Quality of Service)
attacks and, 28
basic description of, 125-130, 287-372
authorization and, 294-298
buckets and, 304-309
business issues and, 509
codecs and, 300-304
commitment and, 294-298
COPS and, 322-338
customer expectations and, 291-292
Diffserv networks and, 323
DOCSIS and, 81
electronic surveillance and, 451, 463
event messages and, 408, 418-419
flowspecs and, 309-311
gates and, 292-293, 316-321
Intserv networks and, 323
jitter buffers and, 304-309
MAC headers and, 105
new specifications and, 500
operator expectations and, 291-292
parameters, 157
protocol operation and, 339-391
provisioning mechanisms and, 376-377
reservation and, 294-298
resources and, 294
SIP messaging and, 237, 241
QoS_Change message, 411, 431
QoS_Commit message, 431
QoS_Descriptor attribute, 427, 431
QoS_End message, 408
QoSParameterSets parameter, 128
QoSParameterSetType parameter, 314
QoS_Reserve message, 431
QoS_Start message, 408, 411, 427, 429, 460, 451, 452, 469, 471
QoS_Stop attribute, 411, 427, 451-452
QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying), 91-94, 97
Quality of Service (QoS). See QoS (Quality of Service)
QuarantineHandling parameter, 160, 170
Query_Type attribute, 425

RADIUS protocol, 352-355, 358, 371
Accounting-Request format, 433-435
basic description of, 535
event messages and, 409, 432-437
Ranging, 83-86, 112
backoff end, 117
backoff start, 117
status, 114
Rate field, 333
RBOCs (Regional Bell Operating Companies), 1-2
RC4 cipher, 59-60, 475, 504
attributes and, 188
basic description of, 535
bearer channel security and, 203-206
call signaling and, 196-206
DCS and, 284
internetworking with PSTNs and, 475
three-way calling and, 224
Real-Time Polling Service Flow, 127
ReasonCode parameter, 160
Record Keeping Server (RKS), 240-241, 316-317, 408, 496
electronic surveillance and, 448-453
provisioning mechanisms and, 413, 431-432
RADIUS protocol and, 432
Record-Route: header, 243-244, 268, 270
recvonly mode, 156
Redirected_From_Info attribute, 450, 467
Redirected_From_Party_ID attribute, 466
Redirected_From_Party_Number attribute
Redirected_To_Party_Number attribute, 450
Redirected_to_Party_ID attribute, 466
Redirection message, 454, 465-466
Reed-Solomon Forward Error Correction, 98
reestablishment flag, 402, 407
REG-ACK messages, 107
REG-REQ messages, 107
REG-RSP messages, 107
Rekey message, 405-408
Related_Call_Billing_Correlation_ID attribute, 426
Release message, 466
Remote-Committed state, 321
Remote-Gate-ID field, 334
Remote-Gate-Info field, 368
Remote-Gate-Info object, 329, 333-334, 338-339
RemoteConnectionDescriptor parameter, 177-178
Reorder tone, 485
Repeat calling, 417, 425-426
Replay attacks, 37
replicate mode, 156
Report message, 385
REPORT-STATE message, 349
Request/Data IE, 122
RequestedEvents parameter, 161, 170, 177
Request Frame Header, 104, 105
RequestIdentifier parameter, 163-164, 177
Request IE, 120, 122, 124
RequestInfo parameter, 163
RequestNotify message, 170
Requests for Comment (RFCs). See RFCs (Requests for Comment)
Require: header, 234, 244
Reserved envelope, 318
Reserved field, 332, 335, 337, 353
Reserved message, 139, 411
Reserved Rate value, 310
Reserved resources, 295-298
reserved state, 294-298, 321, 350
Resource gates, 170
ResourceID parameter, 177
ResourceIDs, 171-172, 177, 179, 318-319
Resources
authorized, 295-298
committed, 295-298, 350
QoS and, 294, 295-298, 350
reserved, 295-298
Response(s)
to the AUCX command, 181-182
to the AUEP command, 181
to the CRCX command, 178-179
to the DLCX command, 180
parameters, 176-178
to the NFTY command, 180
provisional, 193-194
to the RQNT command, 180
to the RSIP command, 182
ResponseAck parameter, 164, 177, 178-179, 193
Response codes, 174-182
RestartDelay parameter, 164
RestartMethod parameter, 164
Retransmission strategy, 252-254
Return calling, 235, 417, 425-426
Returned_Number attribute, 425
Reverse T-spec field, 355
RF (Radio Frequency) energy, 86
RFCs (Requests for Comment)
basic description of, 536
no. 760, 18
no. 868, 85
no. 1129, 185
no. 1155, 394
no. 1157, 394
no. 1350, 86
no. 1363, 303
no. 1510, 45, 400
no. 1521, 545
no. 1889, 197, 308, 315
no. 1890, 197
no. 2104, 62-63
no. 2138, 299
no. 2139, 299, 432
no. 2327, 182, 184, 244
no. 2409, 48
no. 2459, 66
no. 2543, 227, 241-243
no. 2571, 375
no. 2705, 145
no. 2833, 302-303
Ringbacks, 144, 485-486
RINGING message, 229
RJ-45 (Ethernet) ports, 447
RKS (Record Keeping Server), 240-241, 316-317, 408, 496
electronic surveillance and, 448-453
provisioning mechanisms and, 413, 431-432
RADIUS protocol and, 432
RNG-REQ messages, 107, 112-113
RNG-RSP messages, 107, 112, 113-114
Root Certification Authority, 43, 66-67
Route: header, 244
Routers, 20, 536
Routing_Number attribute, 429, 430, 426
Routing-Number field, 336
RQNT (NotificationRequest) command, 148, 149, 153, 161-162, 180, 206, 210, 214, 492
RSA algorithm, 39-43, 57-59, 139-140, 504
RSA Data Security, 59, 504. See also RSA algorithm
RSIP (RestartInProgress) command, 148, 153, 182, 206-209
RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol), 108, 291, 360, 375
RTP (Realtime Transport Protocol), 61-62, 155, 461, 485
attributes and, 186-187, 247
bearer channel security and, 197-199
call signaling and, 159
format, encoded, 198-199
header format, 198-199
key management and, 206-209
mid-call codec changes and, 276-277
packets, encrypting, 199-206
QoS and, 295, 308
SIP messaging and, 241
RTPMAPs, 189-190

S-Num field, 328, 344, 347
S-Type field, 328, 344, 347
SA (Source address) field, 103, 106
SA Recovered message, 403
Safe Harbor provision, 443
SAID (Security Association Identifier), 132, 133. See also SAs (Security Associations)
BPI+ and, 135
keying material for, lifetime of, 138
obtaining TEKs and, 135
SAP (Simple Acknowledgement Protocol), 21
SAs (Security Associations), 50-52, 132, 408. SAID (Security Association Identifier)
lifetime values for, 138, 402-403, 407
provisioning mechanisms and, 398-404
SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol), 476, 537
SDP (Session Description Protocol), 151, 152, 176, 244-249
attributes and, 186, 189
bearer channel security and, 197
dynamic payload mappings and, 190
electronic surveillance and, 461, 462
flowspecs and, 311-314
internetworking with PSTNs and, 485
provisional responses and, 193
responses and, 178, 179, 181
RTP packets and, 199
Secondary lines, 506-507
Secondary-Record-Keeping-Server-IP-Address field, 335
Secondary-Record-Keeping-Server-Port field, 335
Second_Call_Calling_Party_Number attribute, 426
Secure pipe. See SA (Security Association)
Secure MIME (S/MIME), 49
Security
automated, 503-504
bearer channel, 195-205, 549-550
concepts, 32-33
in digital networks, 31-33
DQoS and, 298-299
management, 376
QoS and, 298-299
specific mechanisms and algorithms for, 49-78
Security Key field, 334
Semicolon (;), 155
sendonly mode, 156
sendrecv mode, 156
Sequence number field, 198, 413
Server Authentication Key, 407
Service_Activation message, 411, 427-428
Service_Deactivation message, 411, 428
Service Flow(s)
activation of, 126
admission of, 125
authorized, 125
basic description of, 125
Dynamic, 128-130
flowspecs and, 311-314
Identifiers (SFIDs), 109, 125
QoS and, 290, 300, 311-314, 350
Service Flow Extended Header, 104
ServiceFlowID parameter, 314
ServiceFlowReference parameter, 314
ServiceFlowScheduling parameter, 314
Service_Instance message, 411, 425-426, 450-451
Service_Name attribute, 426, 428
Session Class field, 332
Session descriptions, 182-189
session-ID field, 245
Session Name parameter, 244, 245
SET message, 384
SetRequest message, 385, 387-389, 393, 397-398
SF_ID attribute, 427
SFIDs (Service Flow Identifiers), 109, 125
SG (Signaling Gateway), 474, 478-480, 496
SHA-1 (Secure Hash Algorithm number 1), 47, 188, 201, 403, 407
basic description of, 537
bearer-channel keying material and, 549
DSC signaling and, 256, 257
provisioning mechanisms and, 401
use of, as the basis for HMAC calculations, 63
Short Messaging System, 441
SIDs (Service IDs), 86, 113, 141
basic description of, 109
BPI+ and, 134
MAC and, 109
MAP message and, 121-125
mapping of multicast, to data transmission algorithms, 122
Signaling_Start message, 411, 423-424, 436, 437, 450, 468
Signaling_Stop message, 411, 423-424
SignalRequests parameter, 164-165, 177
Signatures, digital, 40-41
signedAuthPack field, 46-47
SignedData type, 47
Silence suppression flags, 154
Simultaneous calls, multiple, 232
Sine wave, 88
SIP (Session Initiation Protocol), 227, 241-249, 257-258
header extensions, 234-235, 243-244
messaging, 234-241
response extensions, 241
Slack Term field, 333
SLS (Signaling Link Selection), 480
smod operator, 60-61
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), 374, 375-389
snrccomt field, 172
snrcresv field, 172
SOHO (Small Office/Home Office) users, 9
Source IP Address field, 332
Source Port field, 332
SpecificEndPointID parameter, 177
Speed dial, 233
SPI (Security Parameter Index), 52, 189, 402, 407
SS7 (Signaling System Number 7), 144, 424, 475-480, 495
SSAP (Source Service Access Point) field, 107
SSRC (Synchronization Source), 198, 538
SSRC field, 198
Sstate blob, 230
Stateful proxies, 259
Stateless proxies, 259
Station Maintenance IE, 123
Status field, 413-414
Subscriber fraud, 28
Subscriber-ID field, 368, 370-371
Subscriber-ID object, 329, 330, 342, 365
Surveillance, electronic
architecture, 446-448
basic description of, 437-472
call signaling and, 448-453
CALEA and, 438-448
CCC (Call Content Connection) interface and, 467-471
Class 5 switches and, 510-511
complications regarding, 471-472
types of, 349-441
Surveillance_Indication attribute, 449
Symbol map, 99
Symbol Rate field, 111
Symbols
@ (at sign), 151
: (colon), 151
/ (forward slash), 187
- (hyphen), 183, 184, 245
- (minus sign), 166
+ (plus sign), 166
; (semicolon), 155
Symmetric keys, 44-45
SYNC messages, 83, 107, 109-110, 115
SYSLOG server, 398

TCAP (Transaction Capabilities Application Protocol), 476-478, 480
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), 21, 191, 476
IPsec and, 52-53
QoS and, 306
TDD devices, 486
T-direct-request timer, 253
T-direct-response timer, 253
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access), 96-97
TEK Invalid message, 139
TEKs (Traffic Encryption Keys), 79, 132-133, 135-139
Telephony service provider certificates, 74-76
Telephony Service Provider Certification Authority, 75-76
Terminating_DSP attribute, 462, 463
TerminationAttempt message, 454, 467
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol), 86, 391, 539
TGS (Ticket Granting Service), 45, 398-399, 401, 407
basic description of, 539
digital certificates and, 77
Kerberos and, 47-48
new specifications and, 501
PKINIT and, 46
TGW (Trunking Gateway). See MG (Media Gateway)
Theft of service, 28
Three-way calling, 220-224, 258
TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association), 443
Time_Adjustment attribute, 431
Time_Change message, 411, 430-431
Time field, 185, 246
Time of day, synchronizing, 85-86
Time parameter, 244, 246
Timers, 252-254, 274, 332
Time Server, 85
Time slices, 96-97
Timestamp field, 198
Timestamps, 198, 200, 204-206, 406
Timing header, 104
TLV (Type-Length-Value) encoding, 110-112, 394, 412
basic description of, 540
RADIUS protocol and, 433-434
TOGGLE field, 141
To: header, 244
Token Bucket Size field, 333
Token Bucket Size parameter, 304, 306
Token Bucket Rate field, 333
Token Bucket Rate parameter, 304-305
ToleratedGrantJitter parameter, 313
TOS field, 397
T-proxy-request timer, 252
T-proxy-response timer, 252
TrafficPriority parameter, 313, 314
Transaction Identifier field, 344, 347
Transaction-ID field, 368, 370-371
Transaction-ID object, 329-330, 342, 365
transaction IDs, 191, 368, 370-371
Transit_Carrier_ID attribute, 465, 466
Translation_Input attribute, 450, 465
transport mode, 49-50
Trap and Trace wiretap, 239, 440
TRAP message, 384, 385
Triple DES (3DES), 54-58, 131, 515
TRI-TCD messages, 107
TRI-TSI messages, 107
Trunk_Group_ID attribute, 424, 429
Trusted domains, 230, 236
T-ringing timer, 253
T-session timer, 253
TSP (Telephony Service Provider), 397-398
T-stage1 timer, 253
tunnel mode, 49-50
Two-state commitment, 295-298
Type field, 108, 110, 140, 353, 354, 434`
Type/Len field, 104

UCC-REQ messages, 107
UCC-RSP messages, 107
UCD (Upstream Channel Descriptors), 83, 107, 110-112, 115, 122
UDP (User Datagram Protocol), 21, 23, 190, 540
DCS and, 252-254
electronic surveillance and, 449
IPsec and, 52-53
NCS and, 174
piggybacking messages and, 192-193
provisioning mechanisms and, 418
QoS and, 352
UGS (Unsolicited Grant Service), 126-127, 295, 312-313
UNIX, 168, 185
UnsolicitedGrantSize parameter, 314
Upstream
bandwidth, 114-125, 294
channel IDs, 110, 114, 116
URLs (Uniform Resource Locators)
basic description of, 540
DCS and, 238, 239, 242-243, 260, 261, 263
initialization and, 393-394
User_Input attribute, 450, 465
username field, 245

VACM (View-based Access Control Model), 376-378
Value field, 354, 434
Variables (listed by name)
AAD variable, 192
ADEV variable, 192
ConfigMax2Enable variable, 382
pktcMtaDevCertificate variable, 378
pktcMtaDevConfigFile variable, 379, 393
pktcMtaDevControlTable variable, 379
pktcMtaDevCorrelationID variable, 378
pktcMtaDevEnabled variable, 378
pktcMtaDevEndPntCount variable, 378
pktcMtaDevEvControl variable, 379
pktcMtaDevEventTable variable, 379
pktcMtaDevEvSyslog variable, 379
pktcMtaDevEvThrottleThreshold variable, 379
pktcMtaDevEvThrottleInhibited variable, 379
pktcMtaDevEvThrottleInternal variable, 379
pktcMtaDevEvThrottleAdminSTatus variable, 379
pktcMtaDevFQDN variable, 378
pktcMtaDevHardwareVersion variable, 378
pktcMtaDevHttpAccess variable, 378
pktcMtaDevKerberosRealm variable, 378
pktcMtaDevMacAddress variable, 378
pktcMtaDevManufacturerCertificate variable, 378
pktcMtaDevPrincipalName variable, 378
pktcMtaDevProvisioningState variable, 378
pktcMtaDevResetNow variable, 378
pktcMtaDevSecurityTable variable, 378
pktcMtaDevSerialNumber variable, 378
pktcMtaDevServerBookState variable, 379
pktcMtaDevServerDhcp variable, 379
pktcMtaDevServerDns2 variable, 379
pktcMtaDevServerDns1 variable, 379
pktcMtaDevServGracePeriod variable, 378
pktcMtaDevServProviderCertificate variable, 378
pktcMtaDevSignature variable, 378
pktcMtaDevSnmpEntity variable, 379
pktcMtaDevTelephonyCertificate variable, 378
pktcMtaDevTgsTable variable, 379
pktcMtaDevTypeIdentifier variable, 378
pktcMtaProvisioningEnrollment variable, 379
pktcMtaProvisioningStatus variable, 380
pktcMtaProvisioningEnrollment variable, 393
pktcNcsDefCallSigTos variable, 381
pktcNcsDefMediaStreamTos variable, 381
pktcNcsDevCodecTable variable, 380
pktcNcsDevConnectionMode variable, 380
pktcNcsDevEchoCancellation variable, 380
pktcNcsDevR0Cadence variable, 380
pktcNcsDevR6Cadence variable, 380
pktcNcsDevR7Cadence variable, 380
pktcNcsDevSilenceSuppression variable, 380
pktcNcsEndPntConfigStutterDialToneTO variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigTdmin variable, 382
pktcNcsEndPntConfigCallAgentUdpPort variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigMWD variable, 382
pktcNcsEndPntConfigStatus variable, 382
pktcNcsEndPntConfigTable variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigCallAgentID variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigTdmax variable, 382
pktcNcsEndPntConfigMax1QEnable variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigRtoMax variable, 382
pktcNcsEndPntConfigPartialDialTO variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigTdinit variable, 382
pktcNcsEndPntConfigMax1 variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigTSMax variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigRtoInit variable, 382
pktcNcsEndPntConfigReorderToneTO variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigMessageWaitingTO variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigBusyToneTO variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigCritcalDialTo variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigOffHookWarnToneTO variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigRingingTO variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigLongDurationKeepAlive variable, 382
pktcNcsEndPntConfigThist variable, 382
pktcNcsEndPntConfigDialToneTO variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigMax2 variable, 381
pktcNcsEndPntConfigRingbackTO variable, 381
pktcNcsTosFormatSelector variable, 381
Version field, 108, 141, 245, 325, 345
Version Identifier field, 412
VersionSupported parameter, 177
Via: header, 244, 262-269
VoIP (voice-over-IP) technology, 26, 232
VPNs (Virtual Private Networks), 50
VSA (Vendor-specific attribute), 434-437, 541

Wake-up message, 404-405
Warm-line, 234
Wiretapping
architecture, 446-448
basic description of, 437-472
call signaling and, 448-453
CALEA and, 438-448
CCC (Call Content Connection) interface and, 467-471
Class 5 switches and, 510-511
complications regarding, 471-472
types of, 349-441

X.509 standard, 42, 47, 49, 64-66, 74-78, 395
basic description of, 541
BPI+ and, 139-140
BPKM and, 132-139
initialization and, 83
X.680 recommendation, 65
xDSL, 512
XOR operator, 56, 57, 98-99
X-pc-bridge extension, 248
X-pc-codecs extension, 248
X-pc-codecs field, 187
X-pc-csuites-rtcp extension, 248
X-pc-csuites-rtp extension, 248
X-pc-secret extension, 248-249
X-pc-secret: parameter, 270

Zones, 501-502, 541

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