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Prepares students for disciplines such as mobile communications, which require a basic understanding of how such channels suffer the effects of fading, and how to withstand these degrading effects.
Allows students to explore the textbook concepts by viewing waveforms, and changing system parameters in the software to see the effects on the overall system.
Helps students readily grasp the newest technology, such as turbo codes, trellis-coded modulation, fading channels, Reed- Solomon codes, PGP encryption.
Gives students insight into the state-of-the-art technique that allows “squeezing out the last drop” of performance improvement that is theoretically possible by using advanced error- correction techniques.
Exposes students to subtle, but important ideas—how they work and how they can be used as a vehicle for achieving different system goals.
Familiarizes students to the security program that has become the “de facto” standard for e-mail and file encryption.
"This is a remarkably comprehensive treatment of the field, covering in considerable detail modulation, coding (both source and channel), encryption, multiple access and spread spectrum. It can serve both as an excellent introduction for the graduate student with some background in probability theory or as a valuable reference for the practicing ommunication system engineer. For both communities, the treatment is clear and well presented."
– Andrew Viterbi, The Viterbi Group
Master every key digital communications technology, concept, and technique.
Digital Communications, Second Edition is a thoroughly revised and updated edition of the field's classic, best-selling introduction. With remarkable clarity, Dr. Bernard Sklar introduces every digital communication technology at the heart of today's wireless and Internet revolutions, providing a unified structure and context for understanding them -- all without sacrificing mathematical precision.
Sklar begins by introducing the fundamentals of signals, spectra, formatting, and baseband transmission. Next, he presents practical coverage of virtually every contemporary modulation, coding, and signal processing technique, with numeric examples and step-by-step implementation guidance. Coverage includes:
Whether you're building wireless systems, xDSL, fiber or coax-based services, satellite networks, or Internet infrastructure, Sklar presents the theory and the practical implementation details you need. With nearly 500 illustrations and 300 problems and exercises, there's never been a faster way to master advanced digital communications.CD-ROM INCLUDED
The CD-ROM contains a complete educational version of Elanix' SystemView DSP design software, as well as detailed notes for getting started, a comprehensive DSP tutorial, and over 50 additional communications exercises.
Click here for a sample chapter for this book: 0130847887.pdf
(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with a Conclusion, References, Problems, Questions, and CD Exercises.)
1. Signals and Spectra.
Digital Communication Signal Processing. Classification of Signals. Spectral Density. Autocorrelation. Random Signals. Signal Transmission through Linear Systems. Bandwidth of Digital Data.
Baseband Systems. Formatting Textual Data (Character Coding). Messages, Characters, and Symbols. Formatting Analog Information. Sources of Corruption. Pulse Code Modulation. Uniform and Nonuniform Quantization. Baseband Modulation. Correlative Coding.
Signals and Noise. Detection of Binary Signals in Gaussian Noise. Intersymbol Interference. Equalization.
Why Modulate? Digital Bandpass Modulation Techniques. Detection of Signals in Gaussian Noise. Coherent Detection. Noncoherent Detection. Complex Envelope. Error Performance for Binary Systems. M-ary Signaling and Performance. Symbol Error Performance for M-ary Systems (M>>2).
What the System Link Budget Tells the System Engineer. The Channel. Received Signal Power and Noise Power. Link Budget Analysis. Noise Figure, Noise Temperature, and System Temperature. Sample Link Analysis. Satellite Repeaters. System Trade-Offs.
Waveform Coding. Types of Error Control. Structured Sequences. Linear Block Codes. Error-Detecting and Correcting Capability. Usefulness of the Standard Array. Cyclic Codes. Well-Known Block Codes.
Convolutional Encoding. Convolutional Encoder Representation. Formulation of the Convolutional Decoding Problem. Properties of Convolutional Codes. Other Convolutional Decoding Algorithms.
Reed-Solomon Codes. Interleaving and Concatenated Codes. Coding and Interleaving Applied to the Compact Disc Digital Audio System. Turbo Codes.
Appendix 8A. The Sum of Log-Likelihood Ratios.
Goals of the Communications System Designer. Error Probability Plane. Nyquist Minimum Bandwidth. Shannon-Hartley Capacity Theorem. Bandwidth Efficiency Plane. Modulation and Coding Trade-Offs. Defining, Designing, and Evaluating Systems. Bandwidth-Efficient Modulations. Modulation and Coding for Bandlimited Channels. Trellis-Coded Modulation.10. Synchronization.
Introduction. Receiver Synchronization. Network Synchronization.11. Multiplexing and Multiple Access.
Allocation of the Communications Resource. Multiple Access Communications System and Architecture. Access Algorithms. Multiple Access Techniques Employed with INTELSAT. Multiple Access Techniques for Local Area Networks.12. Spread-Spectrum Techniques.
Spread-Spectrum Overview. Pseudonoise Sequences. Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Systems. Frequency Hopping Systems. Synchronization. Jamming Considerations. Commercial Applications. Cellular Systems.13. Source Coding.
Sources. Amplitude Quantizing. Differential Pulse-Code Modulation. Adaptive Prediction. Block Coding. Transform Coding. Source Coding for Digital Data. Examples of Source Coding.14. Encryption and Decryption.
Models, Goals, and Early Cipher Systems. The Secrecy of a Cipher System. Practical Security. Stream Encryption. Public Key Cryptosystems. Pretty Good Privacy.15. Fading Channels.
The Challenge of Communicating over Fading Channels. Characterizing Mobile-Radio Propagation. Signal Time-Spreading. Time Variance of the Channel Caused by Motion. Mitigating the Degradation Effects of Fading. Summary of the Key Parameters Characterizing Fading Channels. Applications: Mitigating the Effects of Frequency-Selective Fading.A. A Review of Fourier Techniques.
Signals, Spectra, and Linear Systems. Fourier Techniques for Linear System Analysis. Fourier Transform Properties. Useful Functions. Convolution. Tables of Fourier Transforms and Operations.B. Fundamentals of Statistical Decision Theory.
Bayes' Theorem. Decision Theory. Signal Detection Example.C. Response of a Correlator To White Noise.D. Often-Used Identities.E. s-Domain, z-Domain and Digital Filtering.F. List of Symbols.G. SystemView by ELANIX Guide to the CD.
I hope you find it useful to be challenged in this way. Now, let us describe the purpose of the book in a more methodical way. This second edition is intended to provide a comprehensive coverage of digital communication systems for senior level undergraduates, first year graduate students, and practicing engineers. Though the emphasis is on digital communications, necessary analog fundamentals are included since analog waveforms are used for the radio transmission of digital signals. The key feature of a digital communication system is that it deals with a finite set of discrete messages, in contrast to an analog communication system in which messages are defined on a continuum. The objective at the receiver of the digital system is not to reproduce a waveform with precision; it is instead to determine from a noise-perturbed signal, which of the finite set of waveforms had been sent by the transmitter. In fulfillment of this objective, there has arisen an impressive assortment of signal processing techniques.
The book develops these techniques in the context of a unified structure. The structure, in block diagram form, appears at the beginning of each chapter; blocks in the diagram are emphasized, when appropriate, to correspond to the subject of that chapter. Major purposes of the book are to add organization and structure to a field that has grown and continues to grow rapidly, and to insure awareness of the "big picture" even while delving into the details. Signals and key processing steps are traced from the information source through the transmitter, channel, receiver, and ultimately to the information sink. Signal transformations are organized according to nine functional classes: Formatting and source coding, Baseband signaling, Bandpass signaling, Equalization, Channel coding, Muliplexing and multiple access, Spreading, Encryption, and Synchronization. Throughout the book, emphasis is placed on system goals and the need to trade off basic system parameters such as signal-to-noise ratio, probability of error, and bandwidth expenditure.
Chapter 1 introduces the overall digital communication system and the basic signal transformations that are highlighted in subsequent chapters. Some basic ideas of random variables and the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) model are reviewed. Also, the relationship between power spectral density and autocorrelation, and the basics of signal transmission through linear systems are established. Chapter 2 covers the signal processing step, known as formatting, in order to render an information signal compatible with a digital system. Chapter 3 emphasizes baseband signaling, the detection of signals in Gaussian noise, and receiver optimization. Chapter 4 deals with bandpass signaling and its associated modulation and demodulation/detection techniques. Chapter 5 deals with link analysis, an important subject for providing overall system insight; it considers some subtleties that are often missed. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 deal with channel codinga cost-effective way of providing a variety of system performance trade-offs. Chapter 6 emphasizes linear block codes, Chapter 7 deals with convolutional codes, and Chapter 8 deals with Reed-Solomon codes and concatenated codes such as turbo codes.
Chapter 9 considers various modulation/coding system trade-offs dealing with probability of bit-error performance, bandwidth efficiency, and signal-to-noise ratio. It also treats the important area of coded modulation, particularly trellis-coded modulation. Chapter 10 deals with synchronization for digital systems. It covers phase-locked loop implementation for achieving carrier synchronization. It covers bit synchronization, frame synchronization, and network synchronization, and it introduces some ways of performing synchronization using digital methods.
Chapter 11 treats multiplexing and multiple access. It explores techniques that are available for utilizing the communication resource efficiently. Chapter 12 introduces spread spectrum techniques and their application in such areas as multiple access, ranging, and interference rejection. This technology is important for both military and commercial applications. Chapter 13 deals with source coding which is a special class of data formatting. Both formatting and source coding involve digitization of data; the main difference between them is that source coding additionally involves data redundancy reduction. Rather than considering source coding immediately after formatting, it is purposely treated in a later chapter so as not to interrupt the presentation flow of the basic processing steps. Chapter 14 covers basic encryption/decryption ideas. It includes some classical concepts, as well as a class of systems called public key cryptosystems, and the widely used E-mail encryption software known as Pretty Good Privacy (PGP). Chapter 15 deals with fading channels. Here, we deal with applications, such as mobile radios, where characterization of the channel is much more involved than that of a nonfading one. The design of a communication system that will withstand the degradation effects of fading can be much more challenging than the design of its nonfading counterpart. In this chapter, we describe a variety of techniques that can mitigate the effects of fading, and we show some successful designs that have been implemented.
It is assumed that the reader is familiar with Fourier methods and convolution. Appendix A reviews these techniques, emphasizing those properties that are particularly useful in the study of communication theory. It also assumed that the reader has a knowledge of basic probability and has some familiarity with random variables. Appendix B builds on these disciplines for a short treatment on statistical decision theory with emphasis on hypothesis testingso important in the understanding of detection theory. A new section, Appendix E, has been added to serve as a short tutorial on s-domain, z-domain, and digital filtering. A concise DSP tutorial also appears on the CD that accompanies the book.
If the book is used for a two-term course, a simple partitioning is suggested; the first seven chapters can be taught in the first term, and the last eight chapters in the second term. If the book is used for a one-term introductory course, it is suggested that the course material be selected from the following chapters: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 12.