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Designing Enterprise Applications with the J2EE™ Platform, 2nd Edition

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Designing Enterprise Applications with the J2EE™ Platform, 2nd Edition


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  • Copyright 2002
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8x9-1/4
  • Pages: 448
  • Edition: 2nd
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-78790-3
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-78790-0

"The Java™ BluePrints Team has done it again. This book is an indispensable asset to all J2EE™ developers and should never be far from reach."

--John Crupi, coauthor of Core J2EE™ Patterns, Distinguished Engineer, Sun Java Center, Sun Microsystems, Inc.

The Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition, offers developers a simplified, component-based approach to creating applications for intranets and the Internet.

As part of the highly regarded Java BluePrints program, Designing Enterprise Applications with the J2EE™ Platform, Second Edition, describes the key architectural and design issues in applications supported by the J2EE™ platform and offers practical guidelines for both architects and developers. It explores key J2EE platform features such as Java servlets, JavaServer Pages™, and Enterprise JavaBeans™ component models, as well as the JDBC™ API, Java Message Service API, and J2EE Connector Architecture. It also discusses security, deployment, transaction management, internationalization, and other important issues for today's applications.

Through code samples and a full e-commerce application example, this book provides concrete guidelines to mastering the J2EE platform. Highlights include:

  • An introduction to the J2EE platform, the applications it supports, and the technologies it provides
  • Discussions on how to design Web-based applications using Java servlet and JavaServer Pages technologies
  • Architectural guidelines for designing Enterprise JavaBeans components for scalability, reliability, and performance
  • How to connect J2EE applications to existing systems and applications using JDBC and J2EE Connector technologies
  • Design motivations behind the widely used Java Pet Store demo application
  • A glossary of J2EE and enterprise computing terminology



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Designing and Implementing J2EE Clients

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Sample Chapter 3

Table of Contents



About the Authors.

1. Introduction.

Challenges of Enterprise Application Development.

Programming Productivity.

Integration with Existing Systems.

Freedom of Choice.

Response to Demand.

Maintaining Security.

The Platform for Enterprise Solutions.

J2EE Platform Overview.

J2EE Platform Benefits.

J2EE Application Scenarios.

Multitier Application Scenario.

Stand-Alone Client Scenario.

Web-Centric Application Scenario.

Business-to-Business Scenario.

How This Book Is Organized.


References and Resources.

2. J2EE Platform Technologies.

Component Technologies.

Types of J2EE Clients.

Web Components.

Enterprise JavaBeans Components.

Components, Containers, and Services.

Platform Roles.

J2EE Product Provider.

Application Component Provider.

Application Assembler.


System Administrator.

Tool Provider.

Platform Services.

Naming Services.

Deployment Services.

Transaction Services.

Security Services.

Service Technologies.


Java Transaction API and Service.

Java Naming and Directory Interface.

J2EE Connector Architecture.

Java API for XML Processing Technology.

Communication Technologies.

Internet Protocols.

Remote Method Invocation Protocols.

Object Management Group Protocols.

Messaging Technologies.

Data Formats.


References and Resources.

3. The Client Tier.

Client Considerations.

Network Considerations.

Security Considerations.

Platform Considerations.

General Design Issues and Guidelines.

Design Issues and Guidelines for Browser Clients.

Presenting the User Interface.

Validating User Inputs.

Communicating with the Server.

Managing Conversational State.

Design Issues and Guidelines for Java Clients.

Presenting the User Interface.

Validating User Inputs.

Communicating with the Server.

Managing Conversational State.


References and Resources.

4. The Web Tier.

The Purpose of the Web Tier.

Web-Tier Technologies.

Traditional Web-Tier Technologies.

Web-Tier Technologies in the J2EE Platform.

The Web Container.

Java Servlets.

JavaServer Pages (JSP) Technology.

Web-Tier Technology Guidelines.

Web-Tier Application Structure.

Web-Tier Application Framework Design.

Structuring the Web Tier.

Web-Tier MVC Controller Design.

Web-Tier MVC View Design.

Web-Tier MVC Model Design.

Web Application Frameworks.

Separating Business Logic from Presentation.

Web-Tier State.

Distributable Web Applications.


References and Resources.

5. The Enterprise JavaBeans Tier.

Business Logic and Business Objects.

Common Requirements of Business Objects.

Enterprise Beans as J2EE Business Objects.

Enterprise Beans and EJB Containers.

Remote and Local Client Views.

Guidelines for Using Local or Remote Client Views.

Entity Beans and Local Client Views.

Entity Beans.

Guidelines for Using Entity Beans.

Entity Bean Persistence.

When to Use Bean-Managed Persistence.

Session Beans.

Stateful Session Beans.

Stateless Session Beans.

Message-Driven Beans.

Uses of Message-Driven Beans.

Example: Invoice Message-Driven Bean.

Design Guidelines.

Remote versus Local Client Access for Entity Beans.

Session Beans as a Facade to Entity Beans.

Fine-Grained versus Coarse-Grained Object Access.

Master-Detail Modeling Using Enterprise Beans.

Data Access Objects.

Implementing an Entity Bean without a Create Method.

Representing References to Entity Beans.

Portability Guidelines.

Typecast Remote References.

Mark Non-Serializable Fields Transient.

Bean-Managed Persistence and Portability.


References and Resources.

6. Integrating with the Enterprise Information System Tier.

Integration Scenarios.

An Internet E-Store Application.

An Intranet Human Resources Application.

A Distributed Purchasing Application.

An Order Fulfillment Application.

J2EE Integration Technologies.

J2EE Connector Architecture.

Java Message Service API.

JDBC and RDBMS Access.

Application Integration Design Approaches.

Synchronous Integration.

Asynchronous Integration.

Comparing Approaches.

Data Integration.

Developing an Integration Layer.

Programming Access to Data and Functions.

Using Tools for EIS Integration.

Developing EIS Access Objects.

Guidelines for Connection Management.

Security Guidelines.


References and Resources.

7. Packaging and Deployment.

Packaging Components.

Roles and Tasks.

Application Component Provider Tasks.

Application Assembler Tasks.

Deployer Tasks.

Packaging J2EE Applications.

EJB Modules.

EJB Module Packaging Guidelines.

Web Modules.

Packaging Components into Web Modules.

Application Client Modules.

Resource Adapter Modules.

Deployment Descriptors.

J2EE Naming Environment.

Specifying Deployment Descriptor Elements.

Naming Convention Recommendations.

Deployment Tools.

Deployment Tool Actions.

Deployment Tool Requirements.


References and Resources.

8. Transaction Management.

Transactional Concepts.

ACID Transaction Properties.

Transaction Participants.

Transaction Demarcation.

Distributed Transactions.

Two-Phase Commit Protocol.

J2EE Platform Transactions.

Accessing Multiple Resources within a Transaction.

Transactions across Servers.

J2EE Transaction Technologies.

Client Tier Transactions.

Web Tier Transaction Guidelines.

Enterprise JavaBeans Tier Transactions.

Bean-Managed Transaction Demarcation.

Container-Managed Transaction Demarcation.

Transaction Attributes.

Enterprise JavaBeans Tier Transaction Guidelines.

EIS Tier Transactions.

JTA Transactions.

Resource Manager Local Transactions.

EIS Tier Transaction Guidelines.

Compensating Transactions.

Isolation Level.

Performance with Multiple Resource Managers.

J2EE Resource Manager Types.

JDBC Databases.

JMS Providers.

J2EE Connector Architecture.


References and Resources.

9. Security.

Security Threats and Mechanisms.


Protection Domains.

Authentication Mechanisms.

Authentication Call Patterns.

Exposing Authentication Boundaries with References.


Declarative Authorization.

Programmatic Authorization.

Declarative versus Programmatic Authorization.


Affects of Identity Selection.

Encapsulation for Access Control.

Controlling Access to J2EE Resources.


Protecting Messages.

Integrity Mechanisms.

Confidentiality Mechanisms.

Identifying Sensitive Components.

Ensuring Confidentiality of Web Resources.



References and Resources.

10. J2EE Internationalization and Localization.

Internationalization Concepts and Terminology.

Internationalization, Localization, and Locale.

Character Sets.


Using J2SE Internationalization APIs in J2EE Applications.

Resource Bundles.

Message Formatting.

Date Formatting.


Web Tier Internationalization.

Tracking Locales and Encodings.

Presentation Component Design.

Internationalizing and Localizing JSP Pages.

EIS Tier Internationalization.

Persistent Localized Data.

Internationalizing Database Schema.

Internationalized Application Design.

Internationalizing Applications with XML.

Generating Localized Dynamic Content with XSLT.

Communicating Locale within an Application.

Communicating Locale among Applications.

Localizing Error and Logging Messages.

Client Messages and Application Exceptions.

System Exceptions and Message Logging.


References and Resources.

11. Architecture of the Sample Application.

J2EE Architecture Approaches.

Model-View-Controller Architecture.

J2EE Design Patterns.

Sample Application Overview.

Designing the Sample Application.

Choosing Application Tiers.

Choosing Local or Distributed Architecture.

Architecture of the Sample Application.

Application Web Site Architecture.

Fulfillment Center Architecture.


References and Resources.



Index. 0201787903T03252002


This book, now in its second edition, describes standard approaches to designing multitier enterprise applications with the Java™ 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition. This book, and the accompanying Java Pet Store sample application, are part of the successful Java BluePrints program created by Sun Microsystems with the introduction of the J2EE platform. This program has been used by thousands of application architects, developers, and students to attain better understanding of the programming model inherent in the J2EE platform.

This book and the Java BluePrints program don't provide information on how to use individual Java technologies to write applications--that's the role of the companion Java Tutorial program. Instead, Java BluePrints focuses on guidelines for application architecture, such as distributing J2EE application functionality across tiers and choosing among design options within each tier. This book assumes that the reader already has basic knowledge of the J2EE platform. We recommend that readers without this knowledge familiarize themselves with the J2EE Tutorial either before or while reading this volume. See "Related Information" later in the Preface for details.

This book describes the architecture and design principles employed in building J2EE applications, and explores of the specific approach adopted by the sample application. Striking a balance between specific details and broad principles is never easy. The hope behind this effort is that the principles presented here are both consistent with and a useful complement to the implementation provided by the sample applications documented in this book.

This book is intended primarily for system architects and enterprise application developers engaged in or considering a transition to the J2EE platform. It is also useful for product vendors interested in developing applications consistent with the J2EE standard.

Obtaining the Sample Application

You can download the Java Pet Store sample application, version 1.3, which is described in this book, from:


The sample application requires a J2EE v1.3-compliant platform on which to run. You can download J2EE SDK™, which is a freely available implementation of that platform, from:

http://java.sun.com/j2ee/download.htmlRelated Information

Pointers to J2EE documentation can be found at:


For information on how to use the J2EE SDK to construct multitier enterprise applications, refer to The J2EE Tutorial, available at:


The J2EE technologies cited in this book are described in their specifications:Java™ 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition Specification, Version 1.3 (J2EE specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/j2ee/download.html

Java™ 2 Platform, Standard Edition Specification, Version 1.3 (J2SE specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.3/docs/

Java™ Servlet Specification, Version 2.3 (Servlet specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/servlet/

JavaServer Pages™ Specification, Version 1.2 (JSP specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/jsp/

Enterprise JavaBeans™ Specification, Version 2.0 (EJB specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/ejb/

Java™ API for XML Processing Specification, Version 1.1 (JAXP specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/xml/jaxp/

J2EE™ Connector Architecture Specification, Version 1.0 (Connector specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/j2ee/connector/

JDBC™ API Specification, Version 2.0 (JDBC specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/jdbc/

JDBC™ Standard Extension API Specification, Version 2.0 (JDBC extension specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/jdbc/

Java™ Transaction API Specification, Version 1.0.1 (JTA specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/jta/

Java Naming and Directory Interface™ Specification, Version 1.2 (JNDI specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/jndi/

Java IDL. Available at http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.3/docs/guide/idl/

RMI over IIOP. Available at http://java.sun.com/products/rmi-iiop/

Java™ Message Service Specification, Version 1.0.2 (JMS specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/jms/

Java™ Authentication and Authorization Service Specification, Version 1.0 (JAAS specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/jaas/

JavaMail™ API Specification, Version 1.2 (JavaMail specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/javamail/

JavaBeans™ Activation Framework Specification, Version 1.0.1 (JAF specification). Available at http://java.sun.com/products/javabeans/glasgow/jaf.html

Typographic Conventions

Table 0.1 describes the typographic conventions used in this book.

Table 0.1 Typographic Conventions

Typeface or Symbol Meaning Example
AaBbCc123 The names of commands, files, and directories; interface, class, method, and deployment descriptor element names; programming language keywords Edit the file Main.jsp. How to retrieve a UserTransaction object. Specify the resource-ref element.
AaBbCc123 Variable name The files are named XYZfile.
AaBbCc123 Book titles, new words or terms, or words to be emphasized Read Chapter 6 in User's Guide. These are called class options. You must be root to do this.



Aaccess objects 189
    data access objects 190
       aggregate objects 191
    records 192
ACID properties 252
applet clients 61
applets 26
    accessing a UserTransaction 38
    transactions 260
application assembler tasks 206
application clients 19, 26, 60
    accessing a UserTransaction 38
    deployment 243
    transactions 260
application scenarios 14
    business-to-business 20
    multitier 16
    stand-alone client 18
    Web-centric 19
archive files
    EAR 207
    EJB JAR 210
    JAR 49
    WAR 214, 222
asynchronous messaging 154, 180-181, 183-185
    point-to-point messaging 183
    publish-subscribe messaging 183
auditing 307
authentication 40, 280
    basic 41, 285
    call patterns 292
    changing identity 287
    client certificate 41
    configuration 285
    context 280
       delegating 281
    digest 41, 285
    EIS resource 291
       application-managed 291
       container-managed 291
    EJB tier 287
    form-based 41, 285
       configuration 238
    lazy 284
    mechanisms 284
    mutual 280, 285
    role of references 293
    scenarios 282
    user 53
authenticators 280
authorization 40-41, 293
    consistency across components 296
    declarative versus programmatic 296
    enterprise information systems 199
    example 302
    programmatic 295
auto-registration 293Bbasic authentication
    See authentication, basic
bean-managed persistence 145
    find methods 140
    portability 149
    when to use 149
bean-managed transaction demarcation
    message-driven beans 155
browsers 54
    download time 57
    input 56
    JavaScript validation 57
    server communication 58
    user interface 55
business delegate 351
business logic 130
business methods
    implementation 139
    in component interface 139
business objects 130
    behavior 131
    controlling access to 133
    high availability 133
    implemented by enterprise beans 135
    maintaining state 132
    modeling as entity beans 143-144
    operating on shared data 132
    participation in transactions 132
    remote accessibility 133
    requirements of 131-134
    reusability 134
    servicing multiple clients 133
    structural attributes 131Ccaller principal 296
    of container-managed relationships 146
    See Common Client Interface
character sets 313
    8859 series 314
    ASCII 313
    encoding 314
    Unicode 314
class files 49
client certificate authentication
    See authentication, client certificate
client tier 7
client view 137
    component interface 137
    home interface 137
    local view 137
    remote view 137
    See also Java clients
    applets 61
    applications 60
    browsers 54
       download time 57
       input 56
       JavaScript validation 57
       server communication 58
       user interface 55
    conversational state 59, 69
    cookie 59-60
    data download 69
    design guidelines 54
    in distributed application 52
    input validation logic 63
    interfaces 51
    MIDlets 61
    network connections 52
       security 52
    platform considerations 53
    presentation logic 61
    security 52
    state 60
       within URL 59
    types 51, 60
    user authentication 53
    user interface 62
code generation wizards 165
collation 320
command beans
    access objects
       command beans 189
Common Client Interface 178
    data integration 186
Common Secure Interoperability (CSIv2) protocol 288
component interface 137, 139
components 25
    applets 26
    application clients 26
    designing presentation 325
    EJB 28
    enterprise beans 28, 135
    packaging 201
    portability 10
    presentation 110
    rich clients 26
    Web 27
    wireless clients 27
composite view 350
concurrency 272
concurrent access 143
confidentiality mechanisms 305
connection factory references 193
    data source 197
    elements of 194
    mail session 232
    res-auth 194
    res-ref-name 194
connection pooling 179, 193
    closing 194
    getConnection 194
    guidelines for managing 193-195
    sharing 195
       res-sharing-scope 195
Connector architecture 43
container-managed persistence 145
    benefits 149
    find methods 140
    select methods 140
container-managed relationships 142, 146
    fields 146
    manipulation of 146
containers 26
       APIs 31
    application client 26
       APIs 31
    EJB 30
       APIs 31
    JSP 28
    platform configuration 7
    servlet 28
    Web 28
       APIs 31
conversational state 151
    managing with session beans 157
cookie 59-60, 122
create methods 140
    omitting from entity bean 164
credentials 282DDAO 190
    coarse-grained access 141
    fine-grained access 142
    in XML format 176
    independence 149
    persistent localized 332
    procedural view of 153
    records 192


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