A real-world guide to designing and implementing license-free wireless WANs.
1. An Introduction to Broadband License-Free Wireless Wide-Area Networking.
Differences Between Wired Networks and Wireless Networks. Wireless Terminology and Evolution. Broadband. Wide-Area Network. History of License-Free Wireless Networking. Advantages of License-Free Wireless Networks. Cost Savings. Fast Deployment Speed. Network Architecture Flexibility. Network Independence. Challenges of License-Free Wireless Networks. Challenge of Understanding Wireless Fundamentals. Challenge of Overcoming Real-World Obstacles. Challenge of Maximizing Available Bandwidth. Challenge of Working Safely with Wireless. Review Questions.
Wireless Propagation. Wireless Frequency. Wireless Wavelength. Attenuation. Free-Space Waves. Reflected Waves. Sky Waves. Microwave Reflections. Diffraction. Weather and Other Atmospheric Effects. Precipitation. Wind. Refraction. Working with Wireless Power. Ratios. Power Ratios. Wireless Power Ratios. dBm. dBm Calculations and Reference Chart. Antenna Characteristics. Antenna Directivity. Antenna Radiation Patterns. Antenna Gain. Antenna Spillover. Antenna Beamwidth. Obtaining Wireless Line-of-Sight Paths. Visual LOS Path. Difference Between Visual and Wireless LOS Paths. Fresnel Zone. Wireless Link Budget. Transmitter Output Power. Transmitter Antenna System Transmission Line Loss. Transmitting Antenna Gain. Free-Space Path Loss. Receiving Antenna Gain. Receiver Antenna System Transmission Line Loss. Receiver Sensitivity Threshold. Fade Margin. Doubling the Link Distance. Tips for Planning Long Wireless Links. Antenna Height. Fresnel Zone. Atmospheric Refraction (k-Factor). Link Budget. Long-Link Strategies. Review Questions.
Point-to-Point Architecture. Advantages of Point-to-Point Architecture. Disadvantages of Point-to-Point Architecture. Examples of When to Use Point-to-Point Architecture. Point-to-Multipoint Architecture. Advantages of Point-to-Multipoint Architecture. Disadvantages of Point-to-Multipoint Architecture. Examples of When to Use Point-to-Multipoint Architecture. Cellular Architecture. Advantages of Cellular Architecture. Disadvantages of Cellular Architecture. Examples of When to Use Cellular Architecture. Mesh Architecture. Advantages of Mesh Architecture. Disadvantages of Mesh Architecture. Examples of When to Use Mesh Architecture. Selecting the Preliminary Network Architecture. Step 1: Map the Locations of End Users. Step 2: Evaluate Point-to-Point Architecture. Step 3: Group Users by Proximity. Step 4: Evaluate Point-to-Multipoint Architecture. Step 5: Evaluate Cellular Architecture. Step 6: Evaluate Mesh Architecture. Step 7: Draft Preliminary Network Architecture. Step 8: Confirm Hub Site Availability. Step 9: Confirm End User Site Availability. Step 10: Confirm Site Usability. Review Questions.
Physical Site Surveys. Reviewing the Preliminary Network Design. Contacting Site Management. Physical Site Survey Preparation. Locating a Controlled Equipment Environment. Minimizing the Distance Between the Equipment and the Antenna. Gaining Access to the Roof. Routing the Cables. Surveying the Roof. Determining Where to Point the Antenna. Determining Where to Place the Antenna. Determining Antenna Height. Selecting the Antenna-Mounting Structure. Grounding the Antenna System. Revising the Preliminary Network Design. Radio Frequency (RF) Site Surveys. Overview of the RF Site Survey Process. RF Site Survey Test Equipment. How a Spectrum Analyzer Works. Inspecting Real-World Signals on a Spectrum Analyzer. RF Site Survey Principles. RF Site Survey Process. Documenting RF Site Survey Findings. No Spectrum Analyzer? Now What? RF Criteria Evaluation and Conclusion. Performing Path Testing or Coverage Testing. Negotiating a Site Lease. Lease Rates. Avoiding Interference. Access to Equipment. Insurance Requirements. Work Requirements. Tower Site Requirements. Review Questions.
Using Antennas to Focus Power and Reduce Interference. Antenna Building Blocks: Lights, Mirrors, and Lenses. Antenna Polarization. Polarization Selection Examples. Surveying Common Antenna Types. Omnidirectional Antennas. Yagi-Uda (Yagi) Antennas. Corner Reflector Antennas. Parabolic Reflector Antennas. Panel Antennas. Helix Antennas. Combining Antenna Systems. Feeding Power to Combined Antenna Systems. Bidirectional Antenna Systems. Diversity Antenna Systems. Isolating Antenna Systems. Benefiting from Antenna System Isolation. Vertical Separation Isolation. Horizontal Separation Isolation. Cross-Polarization Isolation. Obstruction Isolation. Sector Antenna Systems. Selecting Sector Antennas. Other Antenna System Components. Feed Systems. Feed System Connector Locations and Types. Antenna-Mounting Hardware. Antenna Coverings. Review Questions.
Overview of the Equipment Selection Process. Reviewing Your Wireless Network Needs. Researching Equipment Features. Visiting Deployment Sites. Testing Wireless Equipment in the Lab. Testing Wireless Equipment Outdoors. Making Purchase Decisions. OSI and TCP/IP Reference Models. Peer Protocols. Services. Basic Packet Structure and Frame Types. Application Layer Functions and Protocols. Transport Layer Functions and Protocols. Network Layer Functions and Protocols. Data Link Layer Functions and Protocols. Physical Layer Functions and Protocols. Physical Layer Wired-Interface Features. Low-Speed Data Ports. Ethernet Ports. High-Speed Data Ports. Voice Interfaces. Wired-Interface Security Features. Physical Layer Wireless-Interface Features. Non Line-of-Sight Features. Wireless Frequency Bands. Modulation Types. Understanding the Modulation Process. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) Modulation. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Modulation. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Modulation. Other Spread Spectrum Modulation Types. Other Nonspread Spectrum Modulation Types. Bandwidth and Throughput. Comparison Between Data Rate and Throughput (Including Simplex Versus Duplex Throughput). Tradeoff Between Data Rate and Distance. Sub-1 Mbps Data Rates. 1-Mbps to 11-Mbps Data Rates. 12-Mbps to 60-Mbps Data Rates. Over 60-Mbps Data Rates. Noise and Interference Reduction Features. Receiver Selectivity. Multipath Resistance. Miscellaneous Interference Reduction Techniques. Physical Layer Wireless Security Features. Antenna Pattern/Signal Strength. Modulation Type. Network ID (SSID, ESSID). Miscellaneous Wireless Features. Miscellaneous Transmit Features. Miscellaneous Receive Features. Miscellaneous Transmit/Receive Features. Data Link Layer Features. Bridging Features. MAC Address Table Size. Number of Simultaneous Connections. Spanning Tree Protocol. Switching. Support for VLAN Tagging. MAC Sublayer Features. Data Link Layer Security Features. MAC Address Access Control Lists. Protocol Filtering. MAC Address Pair Filtering. Authentication. Encryption. Data Link Layer Proprietary Security Features. Network Layer Features. Routing Features. Static IP Routing. Dynamic IP Routing. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Server. Network Address Translation. Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet. Bandwidth Management. Quality of Service (QoS). Roaming. Network Layer Security Features. IP Address Access Control Lists. Firewalls. Virtual Private Networks. Application Layer Features. Network Design. Network Management. Application Layer Security Features. Major Network Feature Decisions. Market Versus Equipment Cost. 802.11b Compatibility—Yes or No? Bridged Versus Routed WANs. Backbone Feature Decisions. AP Feature Decisions. CPE Feature Decisions. Wireless Network Card Decisions. Mesh Network Feature Decisions. Wireless Equipment Environmental Decisions. Wireless Amplifier Feature Decisions. Compatibility Issues. Wireless Support Issues. Review Questions.
Preparing for Outdoor Wireless Installations. Planning. Collaboration. Safety Training. Availability and Use of Proper Tools. Professional Work Attitude. Verifying the Installation Documentation. Installing Tower-Mounted Antenna Systems. Working in High-RF Environments. Tower Equipment-Mounting Scenarios. Installing Rooftop-Mounted Antenna Systems. Building the Roof-Mounted Antenna Base. Installing the Antenna. Waterproofing the Connections and the Equipment. Attaching the Guy Wires. Raising the Antenna and Mast. Running the Cabling. Grounding and Lightning Protection. Installing the Wireless Equipment. Testing Wireless Systems. Testing Point-to-Point Wireless Links. esting Point-to-Multipoint Wireless Links. Documenting the Test Results. Review Questions.
Understanding SNR. Maximizing the Signal Level. Minimizing the Noise and Interference Level. Minimizing Noise from Your DSSS Network. Minimizing Noise from Your FHSS Network. Minimizing Noise from Other Networks. Minimizing Noise from Out-of-Band Transmitters. Signal-to-Noise Variations over Time. Using Direction-Finding Techniques to Locate Noise Sources. Monitoring Network Performance. Documenting Noise-Reduction Results. Minimizing Interference to Licensed Wireless Systems. Review Questions.
Planning for WISP Success. Obtaining ISP and WISP Experience. Serving Niche Markets. Differentiating Between Bandwidth and Throughput. Pricing Your Service Offerings. Overselling Throughput. Committing to High-Reliability Service. Preplanning the Installation Process. Designing Reliable Networks. Selecting Low-Noise AP Locations. Planning for Emergencies. Learning to Spell Decibels. Using Licensed Backhauls. Deploying Stable Networks. Wireless Site Surveys. Standardizing Customer Premises Equipment (CPE). Avoiding Needless Equipment Mixing. Meeting the Customer at the Ethernet. Measuring Fade Margin. Allowing AP Test Time. Managing Network Throughput. Minimizing Lost Throughput. Reusing Frequencies Successfully. Allocating Throughput Per Customer. Determining Network Capacity. Keeping Some Throughput in Reserve. Enhancing Network Security. Coexisting with Other Wireless Networks. Cooperating with Competitors. Interference from Other WISPs. Interference with Amateur Radio Operations. Living with the FCC. Observing FCC Power Limits. FCC Equipment Certification. Responding to FCC Inquiries. Lobbying the FCC. Anticipating Emerging Trends. CPE Equipment Cost Reductions. 802.11 Creep. 802.11b and Cellular Service Integration. Other Trends. Avoiding Black Holes. NLOS Equipment Performance. Receiver Performance Near High-Power Transmitters. Commercial Tower Companies. Changes to Government Licensing Regulations. Review Questions.
Wireless Hardware. Low-Cost 802.11b Access Point Hardware. Wireless Hotspot Hardware. Free Space Optical Hardware. Security Hardware and Software. Antenna Systems. Coaxial Cable. Towers and Antenna Mounting Hardware. Lightning-Protection Equipment. Grounding Equipment. Test Equipment. Peripheral Equipment Distributors. Wireless Software. Access Point Software. Bandwidth Management Software. Wireless Link Planning Software. Utility Software. Site Survey Software. Services. Consulting. Training. Suggested Books for Further Reading. Online Magazines. WISP Industry Organizations. E-Mail Lists. FCC Rules and Regulations. Wireless Standards. Locating a WISP. Community Networks and Wireless User Groups.