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Content Networking Fundamentals

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Content Networking Fundamentals

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  • Copyright 2006
  • Pages: 576
  • Edition: 1st
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 1-58705-291-1
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-291-0

A comprehensive introduction to the theory and practical applications of content networking 

  • Get a strong introduction to the basic networking concepts necessary for content networking, including network address translation, IP multicast content delivery, quality of service, and streaming media
  • Master the application-layer protocols, including HTTP, SSL, RSTP, RTP and FTP
  • Design redundancy and high availability by using server load balancing, Domain Name System (DNS) directory services, Cisco DistributedDirector software, proximity-based load balancing, and global sticky databases
  • Learn to switch and offload encrypted content by importing, creating, and configuring certificates and keys in Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) termination devices
  • Examine how to configure routers with Web Cache Communication Protocol (WCCP) and to switch content requests to content engines for serving frequently requested objects
  • Learn how to configure caching, live push- and pull-splitting, content acquisitioning, and pre-positioning using Cisco Application and Content Networking System (ACNS) software

Content networking is the most popular technology used to enhance network and application performance. The growth of content networking has been driven by end-user demands for richer content and lowered response times. These demands have caused the field of content networking to flourish with technological advances. Today many companies use content networking to add a layer of intelligence to their systems, scaling server availability and optimizing content delivery.

Content Networking Fundamentals introduces you to content networking solutions and the underlying networking technologies that content networking uses to accelerate your applications in new and unique ways. You’ll discover various algorithms behind content networking and learn how the Cisco Systems® product suite implements them.

In this comprehensive guide, you start with a review of the protocols required for content networking, building your knowledge of introductory concepts and applications. From there, you delve into the components specific to content networking, with a focus on the content-aware Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Layers 4 through 7. Numerous deployment examples help you understand the more advanced topics. You can use the configuration snapshots in this book as skeletal configurations for your production network.

Following the valuable lessons taught in Content Networking Fundamentals, you’ll be able to effectively design, deploy, maintain, and troubleshoot content networks.

Sample Content

Table of Contents

Part I    Overview of Content Networking

Chapter 1       Introducing Content Networking

Defining Content Networking

Understanding the Underlying Technologies

Purpose and Goals

    Scalability and Availability

    Bandwidth and Response Times

    Customization and Prioritization

    Security, Auditing, and Monitoring

Cisco Content Networking Solutions

    Content Switching

    Application and Content Networking System

    Content Network Partnership Program


Review Questions

Recommended Reading

Part II    Networking Fundamentals

Chapter 2       Exploring the Network Layers

Ethernet Physical and Data Link Layers

    Physical Layer

    Data Link Layer

Internet Protocol

    Address Resolution Protocol

    Internet Control Message Protocol

    Internet Group Management Protocol and Protocol Independent Multicast

Transport Layer

    Transmission Control Protocol

    User Datagram Protocol

Putting It All Together with a Detailed Network Trace


Review Questions

Recommended Reading

Chapter Goals

Chapter 3       Introducing Switching, Routing, and Address Translation

Exploring Ethernet Frame Switching

Configuring Virtual LANs

    Configuring VLAN Trunking

    Exploring MAC Learning with Multiple VLANs

    VLAN Trunking Protocol

Understanding IP Routing

    Configuring Static Routing

    Understanding Dynamic Routing

Packet Switching

    Process Switching Path

    Fast Switching Path

    Cisco Express Forwarding

Transparent Bridging

Exploring Network Address Translation

    Source Network Address Translation

    Destination Translation


Review Questions

Recommended Reading

Chapter Goals

Chapter 4       Exploring Security Technologies and Network Infrastructure Designs

    Filtering Packets with Access Control Lists

    Application Layer Inspection

Designing Enterprise Campuses

Designing Enterprise Edge Networks

Designing Headquarters with Remote Office Networks

Employing Internet Content Delivery Networks


Review Questions

Recommended Reading

Part III   Intelligent Network Services for Content Delivery

Chapter 5       IP Multicast Content Delivery

Introducing IP Multicast

Internet Group Management Protocol

    Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 1

    Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 2

    Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 3

 Internet Standard Multicast

Distribution Trees

    Protocol Independent Multicast

    Configuring Rendezvous Point and Multicast Group Selection

    Configuring Inter-Domain Multicast with Multicast Source Discovery Protocol

    Anycast RP

    Layer 2 Multicast Protocols

    Router-Port Group Management Protocol

Source Specific Multicast (SSM)

Ensuring Multicast Delivery With Pragmatic General Multicast


Review Questions

Recommended Reading

Chapter Goals

Chapter 6       Ensuring Content Delivery with Quality of Service

Classification and Marking

    Marking Packets at Layer 3

    Marking Frames, Cells, and Trunks at Layer 2

    Network-Based Application Recognition

Congestion Management

    Understanding Layer 3 Router Packet Queuing

    Understanding Layer 2 Switch Ethernet Frame QoS

Congestion Avoidance

    Configuring Weighted Random Early Detection

    Understanding Policing and Shaping

    QoS Policy Signaling


Review Questions

Recommended Reading

Part IV  Applications for Serving Content, at the Network Edge

Chapter 7       Presenting and Transforming Content

Introducing Markup Languages

    Hypertext Markup Language

    Extensible Markup Language

    Extensible Hypertext Markup Language

    Wireless Application Protocol Markup Languages

Transforming and Formatting Content

    Transforming XML to XHMTL/HMTL

    Using Cascading Style Sheets

    Transforming XML to XSL-FO


Review Questions

Recommended Reading

Chapter Goals

Chapter 8       Exploring the Application Layer


    HTTP 1.0 Versus HTTP 1.1

    HTTP Transactions

    HTTP Authentication

    HTTP Caching Controls

Public Key Infrastructure

    Secret-Key Cryptography

    Public-Key Cryptography

    Identity Theft Prevention Using Certificates

    Secure Sockets Layer

File Transfer Protocol


Review Questions

Recommended Reading

Chapter Goals

Chapter 9       Introducing Streaming Media

Streaming Files and Content Playback

    Creating Streaming On-Demand Container Files

    Describing Streaming On-Demand Content with Meta-Files

    Streaming with Microsoft WMT, Real Networks, and Apple QuickTime

    Streaming Motion Picture Experts Group

Delivering Streaming Media

    Transferring Streaming Media with the Real-Time Transport Protocol

    Real-Time Data Control with Real Time Streaming Protocol

    Fast-Forwarding and Rewinding a Stream with RTSP

    Using Quality of Service and IP Multicast with Streaming Media


Review Questions

Recommended Reading

Part V   Application Layer Services for Content, Within the Network

Chapter 10     Exploring Server Load Balancing

Exploring Your Server Load-Balancing Devices

    Content Services Switch

    Content Switching Module

Content Switch Operational Modes

    Bridge-Mode Content Switching

    Router-Mode Content Switching

Load-Distribution Algorithms

    Round Robin

    Least Connections

    Configuring Server Load

    Hash Distribution

    Layer 5—7 Load Balancing

    Equal-Cost Multi-Path Router Load Balancing

Health Checking

    Out-of-Band Health Checking

    In-Band Health Checking

Session Persistence

    Hash Load Balancing

    IP Address Stickiness

    HTTP Cookies

    URL Sticky Strings

    SSL Sticky

    SIP Caller ID and MSISDN Number Sticky

    Permanent Session Information Storage

Content Switch High Availability

    CSS High Availability

    CSM High Availability


Review Questions

Recommended Reading

Chapter Goals

Chapter 11     Switching Secured Content

SSL Termination

    Configuring Your CSS for SSL Termination

    Configuring Your Content Services Module with SSL

Firewall Load Balancing

    CSS Firewall Load Balancing

    CSM Firewall Load Balancing

VPN Load Balancing on the CSM

Preventing Connection Table Flooding using SYN-Cookies


Review Questions

Recommended Reading

Chapter Goals

Chapter 12     Exploring Global Server Load Balancing

Domain Name Service Operation

    Introducing DNS Resource Records

    Iterative DNS

    Recursive DNS

BGP-Anycast and DNS Round-Robin

Exploring Distributed Director Technologies

    Director Response Protocol and Boomerang Protocol

    HTTP Redirection

    A Robust Distributed Director Configuration

Exploring CSS Global Server Load Balancing

    CSS Multisite Load Distribution

    CSS Proximity-Based Load Balancing

Exploring CSM Global Server Load Balancing

GSLB Stickiness


Review Questions

Recommended Reading

Part VI  The Application and Content Networking System: Content Caching, Streaming, Routing, and Distribution

Chapter 13     Delivering Cached and Streaming Media

Redirecting Application Requests

    Introducing Web Cache Control Protocol

    WCCP Load Distribution Using Hash Buckets

    WCCP Load Distribution Using Mask Assignment

    Layer 4—7 Content Switch Redirection

    Request Redirection Topologies

    Ensuring Content Freshness

    Preloading Content

    Transparently Delivering Authenticated Content

Enabling Transparent Value-Added Services on Your CEs

    Content Authentication and Authorization

    SSL Caching and Tunneling

    Internet Content Adaptation Protocol

    URL Filtering

    Adjusting TCP/IP Parameter Values

Delivering Streaming Media

    Streaming Video-on-Demand

    Splitting Live and Prerecorded Broadcasts

    Streaming Windows Media Technology

    Streaming Real Media


Review Questions

Recommended Reading

Chapter 14     Distributing and Routing Managed Content

E-learning and Corporate Communications

Software and File Distribution

Introducing Content Distribution and Routing

Initializing and Registering Your ACNS Network Devices

Setting Up Your ACNS Network for Acquisition and Pre-Positioning

    Creating Location Trees

    Configuring Content Channels

Acquiring Content to Pre-Position

    Configuring Acquisition Using Manifest Files

    Configuring Acquisition Using the CDM GUI

Configuring Content Pre-Positioning

    Multicast-Push Distribution Trees

    Unicast-Pull Distribution Trees

Content Request Routing

    Simplified Hybrid Routing

    Dynamic Proxy Auto-Configuration

Configuring Streaming Media

    Streaming Prepositioned Video On-Demand Content

    Creating Scheduled Live and Rebroadcast Programs in ACNS


Review Questions

Recommended Reading

Appendix A    Answers to Review Questions

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

Chapter 13

Chapter 14



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