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  • Copyright 2002
  • Edition: 1st
  • Premium Website
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-72683-1
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-72683-1

The practical guide everyone says you need!

"The most comprehensive guide to developing Cocoa available. For the developer new to Cocoa, it provides an excellent introduction that will lead to success with the world's best object-oriented development tools. For those familiar with Cocoa, the excellent organization and presentation make the book invaluable as a reference tool."

--Bill Bumgarner, Cofounder, CodeFab

With the arrival of Mac OS X, Apple now has a modern operating system that calls for advanced programming capability. To take full advantage of the exciting and innovative features of OS X, Apple recommends a development framework known as Cocoa. Cocoa is a powerful collection of object-oriented tools and libraries that makes developing applications a much faster process. Mastery of Cocoa is absolutely essential for anyone doing serious development work for the Macintosh.

"Mac OS X and Cocoa are going to revolutionize the world of software development in the coming years... Aaron Hillegass's book is without a doubt the best aid to learning this technology."

--Erik J. Barzeski, Editor, CocoaDevCentral.com

New technologies often have a steep learning curve and do not always come with complete instructions on how to get started or how to overcome common obstacles. Enter Cocoa(R) Programming for Mac(R) OS X, which shows you precisely how to put Cocoa to work.

"Reading this book is the absolute best way to learn how to harness the power of this amazing technology."

--Andrew Stone, President, Stone Design, www.stone.com

Guiding programmers through the key features of Cocoa, this book emphasizes design patterns that enable you to predict the behavior of classes you have never used before. Using a tutorial format, it takes you, step-by-step, through five applications and an InterfaceBuilder palette. Each project introduces several new ideas, and as each concept or technique is discussed, the author, drawing on his own extensive experience, shows you the advantages of working with Cocoa in object-oriented software development environments.



0201726831B11262001

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Table of Contents



Acknowledgments.


1. Cocoa: What Is It?

A Little History.

Tools.

Objects, Classes, Methods, and Messages.

Frameworks.

How to Read this Book.

Typographical Conventions.

How to Learn.



2. Let's Get Started.

In Project Builder.

In Interface Builder.

Back in Project Builder.

Documentation.

What Have You Done?



3. Objective-C.

Creating and Using Instances.

Using Existing Classes.

Creating Your Own Classes.

The Debugger.

What Have You Done?

For the More Curious: How Does Messaging Work?

Challenge.



4. Controls.

Some Commonly Used Subclasses of NSControl.

Start the RaiseMan Example.

The Interface File for MyDocument.

Layout the Interface.

Implementing the Person Class.

Implementing the MyDocument Class.

What Have You Done?

For the More Curious: Setting the Target Programmatically.

Challenge.



5. Helper Objects.

NSTableView and Its Data Source.

MyDocument Interface File.

Layout the User Interface.

Make Connections.

Edit MyDocument.m.

Key-value Coding.

Delegates.

For the More Curious: How Delegates Work.

Challenge 1.

Challenge 2.



6. Archiving.

NSCoder and NSCoding.

The Document Architecture.

Saving and NSArchiver.

Loading and NSUnarchiver.

Informing the Document That It Has Been Edited.

Setting the Extension and Icon for the File Type.

For the More Curious: Preventing Infinite Loops.

For the More Curious: Versioning.

For the More Curious: Creating a Protocol.



7. Nib Files and NSWindowController.

NSPanel.

Adding a Panel to the Application.

For the More Curious: NSBundle.

Challenge 1.

Challenge 2.



8. User Defaults.

NSDictionary and NSMutableDictionary.

NSUserDefaults.

Creating Keys for the Names of the Defaults.

Registering Defaults.

Let the User Edit the Defaults.

Using the Defaults.

Saving the Frame of a Window.

For the More Curious: Reading and Writing Defaults from the Command-line.

Challenge.



9. Using Notifications.

What Notifications Are.

What Notifications Are Not.

NSNotification.

NSNotificationCenter.

Posting a Notification.

Registering as an Observer.

Unregistering the Observer.

Handling the Notification When It Arrives.

For the More Curious: Delegates and Notifications.

For the More Curious: The userInfo Dictionary.

Challenge.



10. Using Alert Panels.

Make the User Confirm the Delete.

Challenge.



11. Localization.

Localizing a Nib File.

String Tables.

For the More Curious: nibtool.

Challenge.



12. Custom Views.

The View Hierarchy.

Get a View to Draw Itself.

Drawing with NSBezierPath.

NSScrollView.

For the More Curious: Cells.

Challenge 1.



13. Images and Mouse Events.

NSResponder.

NSEvent.

Getting Mouse Events.

Using NSOpenPanel.

Composite an Image Onto Your View.

The View's Coordinate System.

Autoscrolling.

For the More Curious: NSImage.

Challenge.



14. Responders and Keyboard Events.

NSResponder.

NSEvent.

Create a New Project with a Custom View.



15. Working with Fonts and NSString.

NSFont.

NSAttributedString.

Drawing Strings and Attributed Strings.

Making Letters Appear.

Getting Your View to Generate PDF Data.

For the More Curious: NSFontManager.

Challenge 1.

Challenge 2.



16. Pasteboards and Nil-targeted actions.

NSPasteboard.

Add Cut, Copy, and Paste to BigLetterView.

Nil-targeted Actions.

For the More Curious: Which Object Really Sends the Action Message?

For the More Curious: Lazy Copying.

Challenge.



17. Categories.

Add a Method to NSString.



18. Drag and Drop.

Make BigLetterView a Drag Source.

Make a BigLetterView a Drag Destination.

Challenge.



19. NSTimer.

Layout the Interface.

Make Connections.

Adding Code to AppController.

Challenge.



20. Sheets.

Adding a Sheet.

For the More Curious: contextInfo.

For the More Curious: NSDrawer.

Challenge.



21. Creating NSFormatters.

A Basic Formatter.

The Delegate of the NSControl.

Checking Partial Strings.

The Control's Delegate and Partial Strings.

Formatters that Return Attributed Strings.

Challenge.



22. Printing.

Adding Printing to TypingTutor.

Dealing with Pagination.

Challenge.



23. Updating Menu_n.

Making a BigLetterView Uncopyable.



24. Working with NSTextView.

NSTextView.

Messages the Delegate Will Be Sent.

Build the Editor With Which This Book Was Written.

For the More Curious: The Field Editor.



25. Using Java with Cocoa.

Don't Use Java to Write Cocoa Applications.

If You Must Use Java to Write Cocoa Applications.



26. Creating Interface Builder Palettes.

Add NSCoding Methods to BigLetterView.

Create a Palette Project.

Edit the Nib File for Your Palette.

palette.table.

Build and Test.

FinishInstantiate.

Adding an Inspector.

For the More Curious: How to Palettize Objects That Are Not Views.

Challenge.



27. The End.


Index. 0201726831T10152001

Preface

With the arrival of Mac OS X, Apple recommends that all new applications be written using Cocoa. Cocoa is a powerful collection of tools and libraries that will make writing new programs a much faster process.

The increased speed does not, however, come for free. The new technologies have a steep learning curve, and Apple's documentation leaves much to be desired. This book will guide you through the ideas and techniques that separate the great Cocoa programmers from the wanna-bes.

This book is written for programmers who already know C++ or Java and are curious about Cocoa. The reader is not expected to have any experience with Mac programming. It is a hands-on book and assumes that the reader has access to Mac OS X and the developer tools.



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Index

Symbols

@.".." Construct, 48
%@ Token, 39, 44

A

Abstract classes, 122
acceptsFirstResponder, 224, 225
Accessor methods, 52, 59-61, 114
Action(s), 18, 19, 83-85
of buttons, 89
of controls, 73-74
nil-targeted, 251-54
responder chain to, 251, 252, 253
Action message, source of, 254
Active view, 223
addObject:, 34, 47, 71
addObjectsFromArray:, 47
addObserver:selector:name:object:, 169
Alert panels, 175-79
confirming deletion, 176-78
NSRunAlertPanel(), 175-76
allKeys, 157
alloc, 44
AppKit (ApplicationKit) framework, 6, 73
Apple Computer, 1, 2, 3
Application(s), 10
chronology of, 31, 32
defaults for, 160
document-based, 88
drawing, 205
main bundle of, 152-53
names of, 11
notifications between, 168
applicationShouldOpenUntitledFile:, 163
archivedDataWithRootObject:, 129
Archiving, 121-37
defined, 121
document architecture, 125-28
NSDocument, 125, 126-28
NSDocumentController, 125-26
NSWindowController, 125, 128
edited documents, recognizing, 130-31
file extensions, 131-34
infinite loop prevention in, 134-35
NSArchiver, 122, 128-29, 134-35
NSCoding and NSCoder, 122-25
NSUnarchiver, 122, 129-30, 134
parts of, 121-22
protocol creation, 136-37
versioning, 135-36
Arguments
from command line, 160
initializers with, 66-67
methods with, 34-35
Array(s)
memory management of, 42
of objects, 38-39
aSelector, 118
aString, 291
Attributed strings, 238-40
returned by formatter, 302
Attributes, dictionary of, 240
autorelease, 60
Autoreleased objects, 56-59
"Autorelease Old Value" setter method, 60
Autorelease pools, 38
autoscroll:, 220
Autoscrolling, 219-20
timer driven, 276-77
availableTypeFromArray:, 249
awakeFromNib, 29-30, 87, 298
init vs., 212-13

B

Background color, 164-65
becomeFirstResponder, 224, 225
beginSheet:modalForWindow:modalDelegate:
didEndSelector:contextInfo:, 279
beginSheetForDirectory:file:modalForWindow:
modalDelegate:didEndSelector:
contextInfo:,*215
Berners-Lee, Tim, 3
Blank window, 15
BOOL, 26
boolForKey:, 159
Breakpoints, 67-69
BSD Unix, 1
Building applications, 28-29
Bundle(s), 152-53
palettes as, 350
Bundle project, 10
Button(s). See also NSControl
attributed strings in, 239
radio, 78
target and action of, 89

C

C, 33
strings in, 39
C++, 2-3, 33
method implementation in, 27
calendarDate, 61-62
Calendar format string, tokens in, 64
Categories, 257-60
defined, 257
for NSString, 257-60
Cells, 201-4
Centering text, 16-17
changeColor:, 162
changeNewEmptyDoc:, 162
char*, NSString vs., 39
characters, 226
"Check Before Change" setter method, 60
Chronology of an application, 31, 32
Class(es), 4-5, 35-40. See also specific classes
abstract, 122
in AppKit Foundation, 6-7
archiving names of, 121
creating, 49-67
declaration of
in Java, 24-25
in Objective-C, 25, 27
groups of, 100
naming conventions for, 7, 18, 43
notification sent by, 167
Classes, 24
Class method, 62
Class structure, 71
Cleaning projects, 133
clickCount, 207
Cocoa, 1-8
frameworks in, 5-6
history of, 1-3
object-oriented concepts in, 4-5
resources on, 369-70
tools for, 3-4
Color, background, 164-65
Color objects, 302-3
dictionary of, 294
colorSpaceName, 303
colorUsingColorSpaceName:, 303
Color well, 152
com.apple.cocoa.foundation.
NSGregorianDate,*347
Command line, defaults from, 160, 165-66
Compiling, 29
Composition, 48-49
concludeDragOperation:, 264
Conditional encoding, 134-35
Console, 68
Constants in Objective-C, 26
containsObject:, 46
Content view, 189
contextInfo parameter, 286-87
Context-sensitive menu, 329-37
Control(s), 73-102
NSControl, 74-79, 201
ancestors of, 74
delegate of, 299-300, 339
subclasses of, 73, 75-79
RaiseMan application, 79-101
formatter for, 87-88
interface file for MyDocument, 81-83
interface layout, 83-84
MyDocument class implementation, 96-99
Person class implementation, 94-96
setting target programmatically, 101
target and action of, 73-74
control:didFailToFormatString:
errorDescription:, 299
Control-dragging, 22, 90
Controller classes, 100
Copeland Project, 3
Copying
lazy, 254-55
with pasteboard, 249-51
count, 46, 157
Cox, Brad, 33
currentRect, 219
Custom views, 189-204, 226-36
cells and, 201-4
code for, 232-36
connections, 230-32
creating, 191-97
drawRect:, 194-97
instance of new subclass, 193-94
interface layout, 229, 231
nib file for, 226-28
NSBezierPath, 196, 197-99
NSScrollView, 199-201
NSView, 189, 201
size info, 194, 230
Cutting with pasteboard, 249-51

D

Darwin source code, 2
dataForType:, 249
dataRepresentationOfType:, 126-27, 129
dataSource, 105-6, 109, 110
dataWithPDFInsideRect:, 243
dateByAddingYears:months:days:hours:minutes:
seconds:, 62
dateWithYear:month:day:hour:minute:second:
timeZone:, 62
dayOfCommonEra, 63
dayOfMonth, 63
dayOfWeek, 63
dayOfYear, 63
dealloc, 44-45, 53, 172
image released with, 216
Debugger (gdb), 4, 67-70
declareTypes:owner:, 248
decodeObject, 124
decodeValueOfObjCType:at:, 124
defaultCenter, 169
Defaults
from command line, 160, 165-66
precedence of different types of, 160
registering, 158, 161
setting, 158, 159
user, 155-66
creating keys for names of, 160-61
editing, 161-62
NSUserDefaults, 155, 158-60
preferences panel with, 158, 161-65
reading and using, 158
saving frame of window, 165
using, 163-65
Delegate(s), 115-19
creating, 163
implementation errors, 117
notifications and, 173
of NSControl, 299-300, 339
of NSTextView, 323-24
objects with, 117-18
operation of, 118-19
partial strings and, 301
retention of, 118
delegate, nil-targeted action and, 252
deltaX, 207
deltaY, 207
deltaZ, 207
descender, 238
description, 44, 55-64
accessor methods, 59-61
autoreleased objects, 56-59
NSCalendarDate, 61-67
overriding, 56
Designated initializer, 67, 125
dictionary, 158
Dictionary, 155, 157
of attributes, 240
of color objects, 294
userInfo, 173-74
didEnd:returnCode:contextInfo:, 243
Directory
MacOS/, 134
project, 9, 11
Resources/, 134
dissolveToPoint:fraction:, 216
DocBook, 324, 332
Document(s). See also Archiving
architecture of, 125-28
NSDocument, 125, 126-28
Document(s), continued
NSDocumentController, 125-26
NSWindowController, 125, 128
recognizing edited, 130-31
untitled, suppressing creation of, 163-64
Documentation, 30, 31
online, 369
Document-based applications, 88
Document type definition (DTD), 324
Document window, 17-18
class browser in, 18
Drag-and-drop, 261-68
destination of, 264-68
highlighting for, 265
implementing methods, 266-67
registerForDraggedTypes:, 264-65
source of, 261-64
to table view, 268
draggingEntered:, 264
draggingExited:, 264
Dragging pasteboard, 261
draggingSourceOperationMaskForLocal:, 262
draggingUpdated:, 264
dragImage:at:offset:event:pasteboard:source:
slideBack:, 262
drawAtPoint:, 240
drawAtPoint:withAttributes:, 240
Drawers, 287-89
Drawing application, 205
Drawing strings, 240
drawInRect:, 240
drawInRect:withAttributes:, 240
drawRect:, 194-97, 216, 219, 243
adding highlighting to, 265
DTD (document type definition), 324

E

Edited documents, recognizing, 130-31
Editor, 324-39
context-sensitive menu, 329-37
field editor, 337-39
reading, writing, and editing text files, 324-29
@encode compiler directive, 123
encodeConditionalObject:, 134
encodeObject:, 123
encodeValueOfObjCType:at:, 123
encodeWithCoder:, 122, 123, 124, 350, 367
Encoding, conditional, 134-35. See also Archiving
endSpeedWindow:, 286
Enumerators (iterators, enumerations), 157
Equality, idea of, 45
errorPtr, 291
Event(s)
keyboard, 223
in custom view, 232-36
NSEvent, 226
mouse, 205-7, 217-19
getting, 207
modifier keys and, 206
NSEvent, 205-7, 226
NSResponder, 205
Event-handling methods, 205
Extensions, file, 131-34

F

Field editor, 337-39
File extensions, 131-34
File type, icon for, 131-34
File wrapper, 126
fileWrapperRepresentationOfType:, 127
finishInstantiate, 357, 367
First Responder, 17-18
menu updates and, 315, 316
firstResponder, 223-24
nil-targeted action and, 252
First-responder status, 232
flagsChanged:, 225
floatForKey:, 159
float type, 114
floatValue, 77
Fonts, 237-45
making letters appear, 241-43
NSAttributedString, 238-40
drawing with, 240
NSFont, 237-38
NSFontManager, 245
fontWithName:size:, 237-38
Foreign language, localizing for, 179-85
Formatter, 87-88, 291. See also NSFormatter
attributed strings returned by, 302
interface file for, 293-94
nib file for, 294
NSColorList, 294
number, 107-8
partial strings, 300-301
for RaiseMan application, 87-88
connections for, 88-93
main menu, 94
searching strings for substrings, 295-96
Foundation classes, 100
Foundation framework, 6
Foundation tool, 35-40
Framework project, 10
Frameworks, 2, 5-6
AppKit, 6, 73
Free Software Foundation, 67

G

generalPasteboard, 248
getObjectValue:forString:errorDescription:, 291
"get" prefix, 60-61
Getter methods, 60-61
Global defaults, 160
Global variables, 160-61
for standard pasteboards, 248-49
GNU C compiler (gcc), 4
GNU debugger (gdb), 4, 67-70
Graph of objects, 121

H

handleColorChange:, 172
Header file (interface file), 19
Helper objects, 103-20. See also Delegate(s)
hidesOnDeactivate (boolean variable), 140
hourOfDay, 63

I

IBAction, 26, 28
IBOutlet macro, 26
.icns file, 131
Icon for file type, 131-34
identifier instance variable, 108
Id pointer, 26
Images, 205-21
locating and dimensioning, 217-19
NSImage, 220
NSOpenPanel, 207-8
on view, 215-17, 219-20
Immutability, 46
Implementation file, 19
import, 27, 160
indexOfObject:, 46
Info.plist, 125-26, 134
Info panel, 16, 86. See also Inspectors
Inheritance, 48-49
init, 34, 44, 67, 172
awakeFromNib vs., 212-13
initialFirstResponder, 92, 93
initialize, 136
Initializer(s), 64-67
with arguments, 66-67
designated, 67, 125
initWithCoder:, 122, 124-25, 350, 367
initWithEntryDate:, 67
initWithFormat:, 48
initWithFrame:, 198, 212, 309, 311, 350
initWithRect:, 264
insertObject:, 47
Inspectors, 16
for palettes, 349-50, 358-65
code for, 361-65
nib files for, 359-61
role of, 364
Instances, 5
creating and using, 33-35
Instance variables, 4-5, 18
accessor methods for, 59-61
archiving of, 121
declaration of, 26-27
naming convention for, 19
integerForKey:, 159
Intelligence community, 3
@Interface, 27
Interface Builder, 3, 4, 13
palettes in. See Palettes
Interface file (header file), 19
"IOU" on pasteboard, 254-55
isa instance variable, 71
isARepeat, 226
isEqual:, 45
Iterators, 157

J

Java, 4, 341-48
class declaration in, 24-25
interface construct, 122
messages to nil in, 42
method implementation in, 27
RandomApp application in, 342-48
connections, 344-46
documentation, 348
interface layout, 342-43
Java, continued
subclassing Cocoa classes in, 347-48
java.util.date, 347
Java Bridge, 341
Jobs, Steve, 1

K

Keyboard events, 223
in custom view, 232-36
NSEvent, 226
keyCode, 226
keyDown, 224
keyEnumerator, 157
keyUp:, 225
Key-value coding, 113-15
Key views, 230
Key window, 223

L

Language defaults, 160
lastObject, 46
laterDate:, 63
Lazy copying, 254-55
length, 48
Library of code, 5
Literals, 7
loadDataRepresentation:ofType:, 127, 129-30
loadFileWrapperRepresentation:ofType:, 127
Loading documents, 127-30
Localization, 153, 179-87
for foreign language, 179-85
of nib file, 180-81, 185-86
nibtool, 185-86
NSBundle, 179
string tables and, 182-85
creating, 182-85
using, 185
Local variables, 53
locationInWindow, 206
Locks focus, 196
Loop
infinite, 134-35
main event, 31
LotteryEntry (custom class), 49-67
dealloc method, 53
description, 55-64
accessor methods, 59-61
autoreleased objects, 56-59
NSCalendarDate, 61-67
overriding, 56
header file for, 49-52
implementation file for, 52-53
initializers, 64-67
main.m, 59

M

Mach microkernel, 1
MacOS/ directory, 134
Mac OS X, 2, 3, 305
Mailing lists, Cocoa-related, 370
main, 37
main.m of a foundation tool, 36-38
Main bundle of application, 152-53
Main event loop, 31
MainMenu.nib, 13, 88, 94, 139
Main window, 252
Memory leak, 42, 56
Menu(s)
context-sensitive, 329-37
updating, 315-19
nil-targeted actions and, 315
in Typing Tutor application, 316-19
validateMenuItem and, 315
menuForEvent:, 337
Message(s), 4-5
action, source of, 254
in awakeFromNib vs. init, 212-13
to freed object, 43
to nil, 42-43
messageFontOfSize:, 237
Messaging, 71-72
Method(s), 4-5, 18. See also specific methods
with arguments, 34-35
class, 62
event-handling, 205
getter, 60-61
implementation of, 27-28
naming conventions for, 7, 19
for NSArray, 46
for NSMutableArray, 47
for NSObject, 43-45
for NSString, 47-48
with return values, 35
setter, 59-60
Microkernel approach, 1
minuteOfHour, 63
Modal operation, 176
Model, 100
Model-View-Controller design pattern,
100-101,*125
modifierFlags, 206, 226
Modifier keys with mouse events, 206
Modularity, 140
monthOfYear, 63
mouseDown:, 205, 262
mouseDragged:, 205, 218, 220, 262
mouseEntered:, 205
Mouse events, 205-7, 217-19
getting, 207
modifier keys and, 206
NSEvent, 205-7
NSResponder, 205
mouseExited:, 205
mouseMoved:, 205
mouseUp:, 205, 218
MyDocument.nib, 88, 139

N

name, 168
NeXT Computer, Inc., 1
nextKeyView, 92, 93
nextResponder instance variable, 251
NeXT Software, Inc., 1, 2
NeXTSTEP, 1, 3
Nib file(s), 12-13, 16, 29, 139-54
connections in, 90-92
creating, 146
for custom views, 226-28
for document-based applications, 88
File's Owner placeholder in, 147-48
for formatter, 294
invisible objects in, 17
localization of, 180-81, 185-86
objects in, 349
for palettes, 350, 354
inspectors, 359-61
nibtool, 185-86
nil
initialization failure and, 65
messages to, 42-43
in NSArray, 46
nil pointer, 26
Nil-targeted actions, 251-54
responder chain to, 251, 252, 253
updating menus and, 315
Notifications, 167-74
between applications, 168
classes sending, 167
defined, 167-68
delegates and, 173
handling, 172-73
NSNotification, 168
NSNotificationCenter, 167, 168-70
objects attached to, 168
posting, 170-71
registering for, 169-72
unregistering observer for, 172
userInfo dictionary and, 173-74
NSApp (global variable), 31
NSApplication, 18, 254
nil-targeted action and, 252
sheets created using, 279-80
NSApplicationMain, 12, 31
NSArchiver, 122, 128-29. See also Archiving
infinite loop issue and, 134-35
NSArray, 45-46, 332
enumerators created by, 157
methods used on, 46
nil in, 46
NSAttributedString, 238-40, 302
drawing with, 240
NSAutoreleasePool, 38, 56-57
NSBezierPath, 196, 197-99
NSBox, 189
NSBrowser, 105
NSBundle, 72, 152-53, 179
NSButton, 73, 75-76, 201-3
target and selector of, 269
NSButtonCell, 202, 203
NSCalendarDate, 29, 61-64, 79, 291
NSClipView, 200
NSCoder, 122-25, 134
as abstract class, 122-25
versioning methods, 135-36
NSCoding, 122-25, 350-52
NSColor, 303
NSColorList, 294
NSColorWell, 73, 203
NSControl, 74-79, 201
ancestors of, 74
delegate of, 299-300, 339
subclasses of, 73, 75-79
NSControl, continued
NSButton, 73, 75-76, 201-3, 269
NSSlider, 73, 77, 203
NSTextField, 78-79, 203
NSData, 126-27, 128-29, 322
NSDateFormatter, 79, 291, 292, 347
NSDecimalNumber, 114
NSDictionary, 155, 156, 157, 332
NSDistributedNotificationCenter, 168
NSDocument, 125, 126-28, 309
nil-targeted action and, 252
NSDocumentController, 125-26
nil-targeted action and, 252
NSDraggingInfo, 266
NSDrawer, 287-89
NSEvent, 205-7, 226
NSFileWrapper, 127
NSFont, 237-38
NSFontManager, 245
NSFormatter, 291-303
methods of, 291-92
subclass of, 296-99
NSImage, 196, 220
NSImageRep, 220
NSLayoutManager, 321
NSLog, 39
NSMakeRange(), 238
NSMatrix, 202, 203
NSMutableArray, 33-34, 35, 47, 48
methods used on, 47
NSMutableAttributedString, 238, 321
NSMutableDictionary, 155, 156, 158
NSMutableString, 46
NSNotification, 168
NSNotificationCenter, 167, 168-70
NSNumber, 38
immutability of, 46
NSNumberFormatter, 87, 291
NSObject, 18, 43-45, 71, 74, 118
designated initializer for, 67
methods used on, 43-45
NSOpenPanel, 207-8
NSPanel, 139-40
"NS" prefix, 43
NSPrintInfo, 309
NSProgressIndicator, 269, 271
NSRange, 238, 295
NSResponder, 74, 205, 224-25
nil-targeted actions and, 251
NSRunAlertPanel(), 175-76
NSScrollView, 109, 190, 199-201
NSSecureTextField, 79
NSSlider, 73, 77, 203
NSSliderCell, 203
NSSplitView, 190
NSString, 47-48, 240, 332
adding method to, 257-60
autoreleased objects in, 57
char* vs., 39
immutability of, 46
methods used on, 47-48
NSTableView
dataSource helper object, 104-6
methods used on, 116-17
NSTableViewColumn, 108
NSTabView, 190
NSText, 321
NSTextContainer, 321
NSTextField, 78-79, 203
NSTextFieldCell, 203
NSTextStorage, 321
NSTextView, 73, 78, 321-39
delegate of, 323-24
editor built using, 324-39
context-sensitive menu, 329-37
field editor, 337-39
reading, writing, and editing text files, 324-29
methods for, 322-23
NSTimer, 269-77
NSUnarchiver, 122, 129-30, 134
NSUserDefaults, 155, 158-60
NSView, 74, 189, 201, 264, 350
PDF data generation with, 243
NSWindow, 15, 189
NSWindowController, 125, 128, 139-54, 165.
See also Preferences panel
nib file loaded by, 151
nil-targeted action and, 252
Number formatter, 107-8
numberOfRowsInTableView:, 104

O

objc_msgSend(), 72
Object(s), 4-5
object, 168
Object(s)
archiving of. See Archiving
arrays of, 38-39
attached to notifications, 168
autoreleased, 56-59
color, 302-3
with delegates, 117-18
destroying, 34
graph of, 121
helper, 103-20. See also Delegate(s)
initializing, 34
message to freed, 43
in nib file, 349
observer, 167
poster, 167
retain count of, 40-42
temporary, 57-59
objectAtIndex, 46
objectEnumerator, 157
objectForKey:, 155, 157, 159
Objective-C, 2-3, 4, 33-72
classes, 35-40. See also specific classes
creating, 49-67
declaration of, 25, 27
"inherits from" vs. "uses" vs. "knows about" in, 48-49
instances, 33-35
memory management, 40-42
messages to nil, 42-43
messaging in, 71-72
protocol construct, 122
types and constants in, 26
variable declaration in, 43
Object-oriented concepts, 4-5
Object-Oriented Programming and the Objective-C Language, 4
objectValue, 79
Observer, registering and unregistering, 171-72
Observer objects, 167
ok:, 360
Old-school plist, 332
Online documentation, 369
openPanelDidEnd:returnCode:contextInfo:, 215
OpenStep, 2, 3
Outlets, 18, 19, 83-85

P

Pagination, printing and, 307-13
Palettes, 349-68
archive/unarchive ability of, 349, 350
building and testing, 356-57
as bundle, 350
creating project, 352-53
finishInstantiate message, 357
inspectors for, 349-50, 358-65
code for, 361-65
nib files for, 359-61
role of, 364
nib files for, 350, 354, 359-61
NSCoding methods for, 350-52
of objects that are not views, 365-67
palette.table, 354-56
standard, 15
Palette window, 15
Panel(s)
alert, 175-79
confirming deletion, 176-78
NSRunAlertPanel(), 175-76
creating, 148
preferences. See Preferences panel
windows vs., 139-40
Pasteboard(s), 247-51
cut, copy, and paste using, 249-51
dragging, 261
"IOU" on, 254-55
lazy copying to, 254-55
NSPasteboard, 247, 248-49
types of, 247-49
pasteboard:provideDataForType:, 255
Pasteboard server, 247
pasteboardWithName:, 248
PDF (Portable Document Format), 2
generated in view, 243-45
performClose:, 251-52
performDragOperation:, 264
Plist (property list), 332-36
Pointer(s), 5
accessor methods for, 59-60
declaring, 266-67
id, 26
nil, 26
to object's class, 71
setting by control-dragging objects, 23
Poster objects, 167
postNotification:, 170
postNotificationName:object:, 170
Preferences panel, 139-54
Preferences panel, continued
AppController code, 145
editing MainMenu.nib, 140-42
implementation file for, 151-52
menu item setup, 142-44
PreferenceController, 140, 142
Preferences.nib file, 145-50
with user defaults, 158, 161-65
user interface layout, 148-50
Prefixes
"get," 60-61
for global variables, 161
"NS," 43
prepareForDragOperation:, 264
pressure, 207
print:, 305-6
printDocument:, 309
printf, 39
printInfo, 309
Printing, 305-13
pagination and, 307-13
in RaiseMan application, 307-13
in Typing Tutor application, 305-6
"Print-object" ("po"), 68
printShowingPrintPanel:, 305, 309
Project(s)
cleaning, 133
skeleton of, 11-12
types of, 9-10
Project Builder, 3, 4, 9
incremental builds by, 133
Project directory, 9, 11
Property list (plist), 332-36
Protocols, 122
creation of, 136-37

R

Radio buttons, 78
RaiseMan application, 79-101
formatter for, 87-88
connections for, 88-93
main menu, 94
helper objects in, 103-20
connections, 109-11
delegates, 115-19
editing MyDocument.m, 111-13
key-value coding, 113-15
MyDocument as dataSource, 105-6, 109, 110
user interface layout, 106-9
interface file for MyDocument, 81-83
interface layout, 83-84
MyDocument class implementation, 96-99
Person class implementation, 94-96
preferences panel for, 139-54
AppController code, 145
editing MainMenu.nib, 140-42
implementation file for, 151-52
menu item setup, 142-44
PreferenceController, 140, 142
Preferences.nib file, 145-50
user interface layout, 148-50
printing in, 307-13
setting target programmatically, 101
Random number generator application, 9-32
building and running, 28-29
class creation, 18-21
connecting objects, 21-24
editing header file, 26-27
editing implementation file, 27-28
instance creation, 21
interface layout, 16-17
Java in, 342-48
connections, 344-46
documentation, 348
interface layout, 342-43
main function, 12-13, 14
naming, 11
new project creation, 9-12
readFromFile:ofType:, 127
registerDefaults:, 159
Registered defaults, 160
registerForDraggedTypes:, 264-65
Registering defaults, 158, 161
Registering for notifications, 169-72
release, 34, 40-42, 44
rules concerning, 57
removeAllObjects, 47
removeObject:, 47
removeObjectAtIndex:, 47
removeObjectForKey:, 158, 159
removeObserver:, 170
replaceCharactersInRange:withRTF:, 322
replaceCharactersInRange:withRTFD:, 322
replaceCharactersInRange:withString:, 322
resignFirstResponder, 224, 225
Resources/ directory, 134
Resources on Cocoa, 369-70
Responder chain, 251, 252, 253
Responders
firstResponder, 223-24, 252
NSEvent, 205-7, 226
NSResponder, 74, 205, 224-25, 251
respondsToSelector:, 118-19
retain, 40-42, 45
"Retain, Then Release" setter method, 59-60
Retain counts, 40-42, 118
Retain cycles, 118
Reuse, 100-101
revert:, 360
rightMouseDown:, 205
rightMouseDragged:, 205
rightMouseUp:, 205
RTFDFromRange:, 322
RTFD (Rich Text Format with attachments), 321
RTFFromRange:, 322
RTF (Rich Text Format), 321
Running applications, 28-29

S

Saving
documents, 126-29
frame of window, 165
Scrollable radio button, 78
ScrollRangeToVisible:, 323
Scroll view, 109, 190
scrollWheel:, 205
Scroll wheel, position of, 207
Sculley, John, 1
Searching strings for substrings, 295-96
Securities analysts, 3
selectedRange, 322
Selectors, 34-35, 71
Selector table, 72
self (local variable), 53
SEL type, 71
sendAction:to:from:, 254
Serialization, 121
setAction:, 101
setBool:forKey:, 159
setCalendarFormat:, 63
setData:forType:, 249
setEnabled:, 76
setFloat:forKey:, 159
setFloatValue:, 77
SetFont:range:, 323
setInteger:forKey:, 159
setNeedsDisplay:, 196
setNeedsDisplayInRect:, 196-97
setObject:forKey:, 158, 159
setObjectValue:, 79
setSelectedRange:, 322
setState:, 76
setString:, 322
setString:forType:, 249
setStringValue:, 79
Setter methods, 59-60
SetTextColor:range:, 323
Setting defaults, 158, 159
setVersion:, 136

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