A brief and accessible introduction to the intricacies of SCAMPI that allows the reader to undergo a CMMI assessment successfully.
° Part of the acclaimed SEI Series in Software Engineering, sponsored by the Software Engineering Institute
° Helps organizations appraise their current maturity level so they can plot a realistic course for process improvement
° Brief case studies throughout the book show how SCAMPI works in reality
The Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI) is an invaluable tool for organizations seeking to drive quantifiable improvements in systems and software engineering. SCAMPI appraisals can help those organizations identify the strengths and weaknesses of their current processes, reveal crucial development and acquisition risks, set priorities for improvement plans, derive capability and maturity level ratings, and even perform realistic benchmarking. These appraisals are rapidly becoming a core criterion in awarding major government and defense contracts. Thousands of professionals in all sectors are being called upon to participate in them for the first time.
CMMI® SCAMPI SM Distilled, leading appraisers and quality experts from the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) and their partners in industry explain the nature and benefits of SCAMPI. Drawing on their direct and extensive experience, they demonstrate how SCAMPI works in the real worldand how to overcome obstacles that often get in the way of a successful appraisal.
The authors outline the role of appraisals as part of a comprehensive, state-of-the-art approach to process improvement, showing how SCAMPI integrates with quality initiatives, international standards, and other CMMI models and methods. They introduce SCAMPI Class A, B, and C, as well as SCAMPI modes for process improvement, supplier selection, and process monitoring. They guide the reader through the entire appraisal process: preparation; on-site activities; preliminary observations, findings, and ratings; final reporting; and follow-on activities. The authors also address crucial management issues faced by organizations involved with appraisals. Coverage includes: leveraging appraisals in organizations with immature processes; conducting cross-discipline appraisals; performing appraisals concurrently with other quality initiatives; and responding to customer-driven needs.
Whether you're a manager, team leader, acquisition specialist, quality specialist, or appraiser, this book will help you use SCAMPI to achieve your real goals: dramatically improved processes and better systems and software with fewer defects.
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Chapter related to this title.
About the Authors.
I. WHY SCAMPI NOW?
1. Process Appraisal Strategies.
Process Improvement Models and CMMI
The CMMI Product Suite Today–V1.1
Integrating Appraisal Efforts
II. SCAMPI APPRAISALS.
2. New Aspects of the SCAMPI Method.
From Discovery to Verification
For EIA 731 Users
3. SCAMPI Class A Method Definition.
Preparation–Before Going Off to the Races
Conducting an Appraisal
And in Conclusion
4. SCAMPI Class B and C Appraisal Methods.
Scampi C Method Overview
Scampi B Method Overview
Using the Integrated Suite of SCAMPI Methods
Using SCAMPI Methods as “Stand Alone”
5. SCAMPI for Internal Process Improvement.
Preparation Is Critical
The Appraisal Team
The Appraisal Team’s Timeline
6. SCAMPI for External Audits.
Requirements for External Appraisals
The Appraisal Team
Issues for External Appraisals
III. USING SCAMPI.
7. SCAMPI Implementation Issues.
Deploying CMMI-Compliant Processes
Appraisal Strategies Across Disciplines
Initial Process Improvement Efforts
Overlaps in CMMI
Importance of Documentation
Appraisal Sponsor Considerations
Roles in CMMI
High Maturity Organizations
Appraisal of a Multiorganization Program
Appendix A. Glossary.
Appendix B. Practice Implementation Descriptions.
SEI Figure Credit List.
Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) is a new way of approaching integrated, model-based process improvement for engineering development.1 This book describes an appraisal method that is a part of the CMMI Product Suite. The method is called the Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement, or SCAMPI. (The team was really cookin' when it came up with this acronym!) To use SCAMPI to perform an appraisal on your organization is a significant effort that can require a major investment of resources. This book will help you to better understand what SCAMPI is, and how you can make your investment in process improvement pay off.
One primary reason for you to select a model (such as CMMI) as a tool to improve the quality of your organization's processes and products is that the model contains established "best practices," which can comprise a consistent long-term focus for process improvement planning. In addition to these best practices, the model provides a framework by which your processes may be improved in defined increments, so that their capability to produce planned results is increased. You can use a SCAMPI appraisal not only to identify process improvement opportunities, but also to measure your progress and establish a benchmark (against the CMMI model) that characterizes how far your organization is along the road to increased process capability. These results can be used to chart improvements over time, or to make comparisons among different parts of your organization or across different organizations.2
This book has a fourfold purpose. First, we wish to explore and clarify model-based process improvement and how it compares and relates to other current approaches to increasing your organization's process capability and performance. As you invest resources in process improvement, how much of that investment should be in CMMI and conducting SCAMPI appraisals? Second, we will present salient aspects of the new SCAMPI method. This information is essential to making a SCAMPI appraisal benefit your organization. Third, we will compare and contrast the "internal" use of SCAMPI as a process improvement tool to the "external" use of SCAMPI as a tool for evaluating potential suppliers, or monitoring existing suppliers. Finally, we wish to explore strategic decisions for using SCAMPI appraisals in different kinds of organizations.
The primary intended audience for this book is any member of an engineering development organization who has a role in promoting internal process improvement or in appraising the process capability of suppliers.3 Whether you chose this role or someone chose it for you (such things happen, occasionally), you should be able use this book to understand and make good decisions about CMMI SCAMPI appraisals. Our audience includes executives, middle managers, team leaders, acquisition specialists, quality specialists, marketing personnel, process improvement champions, and the often overlooked and overworked process improvement practitioners.
Executives who sponsor a SCAMPI appraisal will find guidance on the key decisions that they will confront during the planning for and execution of an appraisal, and will gain a better understanding of the benefits that they can expect. Middle managers, and team leaders, as well as program or project managers will find information about their roles during the conduct of an appraisal. Their key role is to supply information to the appraisal team on the processes actually followed by the organization. Those with an acquirer role will learn about the value and limitations of using SCAMPI appraisal results in supplier selection and monitoring. Of course, quality specialists have a central role in any process improvement effort or any appraisal of such an effort, and they will learn again why their role is so important. Did we say marketing personnel? You bet! Because acquirers may want to know about the CMMI rating of a potential supplier, those in marketing will gain an understanding of what such ratings mean and the value for their customers in being an organization with established, capable processes.
Process improvement champions need to build and maintain support for ongoing improvement activities, and when the time comes for an appraisal, they will be getting questions from all sides:
How much did you say this is going to cost?
You need us to provide evidence of what?
Is this really going to help us?
Why do we need to change this procedure when it's worked for us up until now?
And so on, and so on.
Most of what we present in this book will help process improvement champions deal with such questions and the stressful environment in which they are asked (but they are on their own in finding a good therapist). Those who implement process improvement have many roles to play in a SCAMPI appraisal, including gathering the objective evidence that an appraisal team needs to do its work and being interviewed during the appraisal. We will provide sufficient information to perform such roles well.
Speaking of appraisal teams, both SCAMPI lead appraisers and SCAMPI appraisal team members are an important part of our intended audience. They have the task of appraising organizational compliance against the CMMI model and assuring that the appraisal method is properly followed. As team members, they may or may not be part of the organization that is undergoing the appraisal. An organization may want an SEI-qualified lead appraiser from outside the organization in order to increase the perception that the results are reliable and sufficiently objective. A division of a large corporation may wish to bring in some team members from other locations, divisions, or sectors to introduce multiple perspectives. Whatever its makeup, the appraisal team has a key role in promoting process improvement across the organization. The information in this book can serve as a useful supplement to the training that those on the appraisal team receive.
Often, we suppose, you may have picked up this book because you have just been told that you are about to be interviewed by an appraisal team as part of a SCAMPI appraisal, and you aren't really sure what it is about or how to prepare. Don't panic! Read on!
This book is divided into three major parts.
Part I, "Why SCAMPI Now?" provides a summary of the CMMI Product Suite today, including the project, models, appraisal methods, and training. Part I also sets the stage by reviewing process appraisal strategies in the context of a process improvement model, as well as related techniques, quality initiatives, international standards, and other approaches that may affect how you address process improvement in your organization. It explores the question of whether an appraisal you conduct using an integrated model (like CMMI) must mandate that there are integrated processes in the organization.
Part II, "SCAMPI Appraisals," describes SCAMPI appraisals in detail. First, distinctive new aspects of the SCAMPI method are presented as a way of orienting readers who may be familiar with prior appraisal techniques, which are described briefly. Then an overview of SCAMPI includes its basic features, its modes of use (process improvement, supplier selection, and process monitoring), the sources for objective evidence that the appraisal team reviews, and indicators that the CMMI model practices have been implemented in the organization. The appraisal itself has three parts, including
Preparation with the appraisal sponsor on objectives, plans, scope, team training, and data gathering
On-site activities that start with reviewing data and conducting interviews, which is followed by generating preliminary observations, findings, and (possibly) ratings
Production and report on the final appraisal results and subsequent follow-on activities
The SCAMPI method family consists of SCAMPI A, which is a "class A" (most rigorous) appraisal, and the less rigorous and less costly SCAMPI B and SCAMPI C methods that you can use either for their intrinsic benefits or as you lay the groundwork for a SCAMPI A appraisal.
Part II concludes by reviewing and contrasting SCAMPI as an appraisal tool for internal process improvement with SCAMPI as an appraisal tool used by an external entity, such as a customer. While SCAMPI is an integrated method that supports both uses, we explore how those uses may vary depending on its mode of use.
Having laid the foundation with a full presentation of SCAMPI, Part III, "Using SCAMPI," concludes with the discussion of various issues having to do with appraisals and process improvement. How can appraisals benefit an organization just starting process improvement, as opposed to a (so-called) high-maturity organization? How are appraisals best conducted across various disciplines, such as software and systems engineering? How does an organization comply with a CMMI model, conduct a successful SCAMPI appraisal, and at the same time meet the requirements of other standards and quality initiatives and respond adequately to customer-driven needs?
Two appendices are provided. The first is a glossary that defines special terms used by CMMI and SCAMPI and the second describes sample artifacts that an organization might use to show compliance with the CMMI practices.
The CMMI project is an ongoing effort, so something as time-restricted as a book must be adjusted as time passes and things change. We strived to provide you with information that is both timely and of lasting value, but it is important for you to have access to the latest information. To this end, the publisher has agreed to support this volume with updates through its Web site (http://www.awprofessional.com) and with further editions as appropriate.
1 Two books are available that present the CMMI models, and they are recommended as good sources for an understanding of what CMMI is all about. CMMI Distilled, Second Edition (Ahern, D., Clouse, A., and Turner, R., Boston: Addison-Wesley, 2004) concisely describes the models and other parts of the CMMI Product Suite, while also providing practical guidance on the use of those materials. CMMI: Guidelines for Process Integration and Product Improvement (Chrissis, M.B., Konrad, M., and Shrum, S., Boston: Addison-Wesley, 2003) introduces the CMMI models, presents a detailed case study of their use, and explains the entire CMMI model (filling most of the book), with all the model variants merged together into a single presentation.
2 Opinions may vary on the value of, or the degree of objectivity in, comparisons across organizations based on SCAMPI appraisals. In this book we will explore reasons for the various opinions on this topic. Clearly, when an acquirer uses a measure of process capability as part of the basis for selecting a supplier and a supplier organization prospers or fails based on such choices, there is a lot of interest in making SCAMPI appraisals sufficiently objective.
3 Many of the same principles and techniques for process improvement that apply in engineering development organizations can apply more broadly in other kinds of organizations. CMMI was sponsored and developed with an eye to its application in engineering development, but much of it may find useful application in a broader context.
© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
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