The essential guide for understanding Ethernet switched networks
Local-area networks (LANs) are becoming increasingly congested and overburdened because of a dramatic increase in traffic, faster CPUs and operating systems, and more network-intensive applications. Many organizations that use network and computing technology use LAN switching to take advantage of high-speed traffic forwarding and improved performance of traditional Ethernet technologies that don't require costly wiring upgrades or time-consuming host reconfiguration. Cisco LAN Switching Fundamentals provides administrators of campus networks with the most up-to-date introduction to LAN switching within a traditional Ethernet environment.
Cisco LAN Switching Fundamentals presents an in-depth look at modern campus network requirements. It provides an easy-to-understand introduction to LAN switching best practices using Cisco Catalyst switches. This book provides you with a wealth of details on the architecture, operation, and configuration of the Cisco Catalyst family of switches. You learn about a wide range of topics, including quality of service (QoS), multicast, Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP), Multiple Spanning Tree (MST), private virtual LANs (VLANs), and configuration using the native and hybrid software interfaces. Design advice and configuration examples are discussed liberally throughout the book to provide you with the best perspective on effective deployment techniques. Finally, the book wraps up with a discussion of steps necessary to troubleshoot common problems and optimize LAN performance.
Whether you are looking for an introduction to LAN switching principles and practices or a Cisco Catalyst configuration and troubleshooting reference, this book provides you with the invaluable insight you need to design and manage high-performance campus networks.
1. LAN Switching Foundation Technologies.
OSI Upper Layers.
OSI Lower Layers.
Types of Ethernet.
Ethernet Cross-Over Cabling.
Ethernet Logical Addressing.
Broadcasts and Multicasts.
Introducing Spanning Tree Protocol.
Spanning Tree Operations.
Spanning Tree Port Transitions and Timers.
Topology Changes in STP.
2. LAN Switch Architecture.
Receiving Data—Switching Modes.
Shared Bus Switching.
Port Buffered Memory.
Oversubscribing the Switch Fabric.
Congestion and Head-of-Line Blocking.
3. Catalyst Switching Architectures.
In the Beginning—Catalyst 5000/5500 (Project Synergy).
Catalyst 5000/5500 Switch Components.
CAM and TCAM.
Catalyst 5000/5500 EARL Versions.
Catalyst 5000/5500 Architectures.
Data Flow on the Catalyst 5000.
Catalyst 6000/6500 (Constellation, Constellation+, and Constellation II).
Catalyst 6000/6500 Components.
Catalyst 6000/6500 Architectures.
Catalyst 6500 Switching Modes.
Data Flow on the Catalyst 6500 Switch Fabric.
Catalyst 4500 (Galaxy 3 and Galaxy 4) Components and Architectures.
Supervisors and Switch Fabrics.
Catalyst 3750 (Lord of the Rings) Components and Architecture.
Power and Cooling.
Data Flow on the Catalyst 3750.
Comparing the Architectures.
4. Layer 2 Fundamentals.
Understanding Legacy LAN Segment.
Introducing Virtual LANs.
Inter-Switch Link Protocol.
Configuration Best Practices.
VLAN Trunking Protocol.
VTP Example 1.
VTP Example 2.
VTP Mode Best Practices.
Understanding VLAN 1.
Management VLAN Best Practices.
5. Using Catalyst Software.
Hybrid Versus Native.
The Look and Feel of Hybrid Software.
The Look and Feel of Native.
Choosing Between Hybrid and Native.
Downloading Catalyst Software.
Software for Catalyst 6000/6500.
Software for Catalyst 4500.
Software for Catalyst 3750.
New Software Packaging.
Packaging for Routers.
Packaging for Switches.
6. Understanding Multilayer Switching.
Understanding the MLS Packet Flow.
Router Access Lists.
MLS on Catalyst 6500.
Understanding the Need for Cisco Express Forwarding.
7. Configuring Switches.
An Ounce of Planning.
sc0 and VLAN 1.
Configuring sc0 and LO0.
Connecting the Switches.
IOS Port/Interface Types.
Configuring the Connections.
Configuring the Access Layer.
Channeling and Trunking.
Configuring UniDirectional Link Detection.
Portfast and BPDU Guard.
8. Understanding Quality of Service on Catalyst 6500.
Class of Service.
Type of Service.
QoS Operational Model.
Marking and Policing.
9. Implementing Multicast on Catalyst Switches.
Understanding IGMPv1 and IGMPv2.
IGMP Leave Process.
Cisco Group Management Protocol.
IGMP Leave Process.
Local Leave Process.
IGMP Snooping Versus CGMP.
10. Implementing and Tuning Spanning Tree.
Preventing Loops with Spanning Tree.
Introducing Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol.
RSTP Legacy Support.
RSTP Direct Failure.
RSTP Indirect Failure.
Understanding Multiple Spanning Tree.
Comparing MST to PVST+/CST.
Internal Spanning Tree.
Spanning Tree Inside the Region.
MST Example—All Switches in the Same Region.
MST Example—Multiple Regions.
MST Example—MST Connected to PVST+ Network.
UniDirectional Link Detection.
11. Design and Implementation Best Practices.
Layer 3 Designs.
Single Points of Failure.
Catalyst Supervisor and Switch Fabric Redundancy.
Catalyst 6500 Supervisor High Availability (Hybrid).
MSFC High Availability.
Catalyst 6500 Supervisor High Availability (Native).
Catalyst 6500 Switch Fabric Redundancy.
Catalyst 4500 Redundancy.
Catalyst 3750 Redundancy.
12. Troubleshooting the LAN Switching Configuration.
Checking Software Versions.
Checking Hardware Components.
Understanding Port Errors.
Using Syslog Messages.
Local Switched Port Analyzer.
Remote Switched Port Analyzer.
Cisco Online Resources.
Appendix A. Catalyst 6500 Series Software Conversion.