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Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications, 4th Edition

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Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications, 4th Edition

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About

Features

  • Brings the book up-to-date for current risk assessment techniques, industry standards, and scenarios
  • Integrates a wide spectrum of subject areas relevant to process safety, including fluid flow and kinetics
  • Includes updated examples and homework problems throughout
  • Contains extensively updated coverage of relief sizing, hazards identification, risk assessment, and other topics
  • Adds 25 new incident case histories and 50 new problems on the accompanying website
  • Helps chemical engineering programs meet emerging accreditation requirements related to chemical process safety

Description

  • Copyright 2019
  • Dimensions: 7" x 9-1/8"
  • Pages: 656
  • Edition: 4th
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-485777-1
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-485777-0

The #1 Process Safety Guide, Now Extensively Updated for Current Industrial Processes, Systems, and Practices

Process safety has seen a dramatic consolidation of concepts in the past few years. Chemical Process Safety, Fourth Edition, provides students and working engineers with the understanding necessary to apply these new concepts to safely design and operate any process.

Long the definitive guide in the field, this edition fully reflects major recent advances in process safety technology and practice. Readers will find extensive new and updated coverage of relief sizing, hazards identification, risk assessment, and many other topics. Several chapters have been completely rewritten, and all are substantially modified. This textbook includes 50 new problems and solutions (mostly in SI units), and 25 new case histories.

  • Safety culture
  • Preventive and mitigative safeguards
  • The CCPS 20 elements of Risk Based Process Safety (RBPS)
  • Toxicology, industrial hygiene, and source models
  • Hazardous material dispersion
  • Fires, explosions, and concepts for preventing them
  • Chemical reactivity
  • Reliefs and relief sizing
  • Hazards identification and evaluation
  • Risk analysis and assessment, including Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA)
  • Safety strategies, procedures, designs, case histories, and lessons learned
Crowl and Louvar link key academic concepts to modern industrial practice, making this guide invaluable for all engineering students and for all working engineers.

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Sample Content

Table of Contents

Preface xv
About the Authors xviii
Nomenclature xx

 
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1-1 Engineering Ethics 6
1-2 Myths about Process Safety 7
1-3 Safety Culture 10
1-4 Individual Risk, Societal Risk, and Risk Populations 13
1-5 Voluntary and Involuntary Risk 14
1-6 Safety Metrics 15
1-7 Accident and Loss Statistics 17
1-8 Risk Perception 27
1-9 Risk Tolerance/Acceptance and Risk Matrix 27
1-10 Codes, Standards, and Regulations 31
1-11 Safeguards 33
1-12 The CCPS 20 Elements of Risk-Based Process Safety 36
1-13 Inherently Safer Design 42
1-14 The Worst Chemical Plant Tragedy: Bhopal, India, 1984 46
1-15 Overview of Chemical Process Safety 49
Suggested Reading 49
Problems 50

Chapter 2: Toxicology 55
2-1 How Toxicants Enter the Body 56
2-2 How Toxicants Are Eliminated from the Body 59
2-3 Effects of Toxicants on the Body 60
2-4 Toxicological Studies 61
2-5 Dose versus Response 62
2-6 Dose and Response Using Probit Equation 68
2-7 Relative Toxicity 74
2-8 Threshold Limit Values 75
Online Resources 76
Suggested Reading 77
Problems 77

Chapter 3: Industrial Hygiene 79
3-1 Anticipating and Identifying Hazardous Workplace Exposures 80
3-2 Globally Harmonized System 83
3-3 Evaluate the Magnitude of Exposures and Responses 89
3-4 Develop and Evaluate Control Techniques to Prevent Exposures 106
3-5 National Fire Protection Association Diamond 115
Online Resources 116
Suggested Reading 117
Problems 117

Chapter 4: Source Models 119
4-1 Introduction to Source Models 121
4-2 Flow of Liquid through a Hole 123
4-3 Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a Tank 126
4-4 Flow of Liquids through Pipes 130
4-5 Flow of Gases or Vapors through Holes 140
4-6 Flow of Gases or Vapors through Pipes 145
4-7 Flashing Liquids 162
4-8 Liquid Pool Evaporation or Boiling 168
4-9 Realistic and Worst-Case Releases 169
4-10 Conservative Analysis 169
Suggested Reading 172
Problems 173

Chapter 5: Hazardous Material Dispersion 177
5-1 Parameters Affecting Dispersion 178
5-2 Neutrally Buoyant Dispersion Models 183
5-3 Pasquill–Gifford Model 184
5-4 Dense Gas Dispersion 197
5-5 Toxic Effect Criteria 198
5-6 Release Prevention and Mitigation 209
Suggested Reading 212
Problems 212

Chapter 6: Fires and Explosions 219
6-1 The Fire Triangle 220
6-2 Distinction between Fires and Explosions 221
6-3 Definitions 221
6-4 Flammability Characteristics of Liquids and Vapors 224
6-5 Flammability Characteristics of Dusts 247
6-6 Sprays and Mists 248
6-7 Ignition Energy 248
6-8 Ignition Sources 250
6-9 Experimental Characterization of Gas/Vapor and Dust Explosions 251
6-10 Explosions 258
Suggested Reading 278
Problems 278

Chapter 7: Concepts to Prevent Fires and Explosions 283
7-1 Inerting 284
7-2 Static Electricity 299
7-3 Controlling Static Electricity 315
7-4 Explosion-Proof Equipment and Instruments 323
7-5 Ventilation 325
7-6 Sprinkler Systems 329
7-7 Industry’s Fire and Explosion Protection Strategy 332
Suggested Reading 334
Problems 334

Chapter 8: Chemical Reactivity 337
8-1 Background Understanding 338
8-2 Commitment, Awareness, and Identification of Reactive Chemical Hazards 340
8-3 Characterization of Reactive Chemical Hazards Using Calorimeters 346
8-4 Controlling Reactive Hazards 372
Suggested Reading 374
Problems 374

Chapter 9: Introduction to Reliefs 379
9-1 Relief Concepts 380
9-2 Definitions 381
9-3 Code Requirements 383
9-4 Relief System Design 386
9-5 Relief Types and Characteristics 391
9-6 Relief Installation Practices 400
9-7 Relief Effluent Handling 403
Suggested Reading 406
Problems 406

Chapter 10: Relief Sizing 411
10-1 Set Pressure and Accumulation Limits for Reliefs 413
10-2 Relief Sizing for Liquid Service 415
10-3 Relief Sizing for Vapor and Gas Service 422
10-4 Two-Phase Flow during Runaway Reaction Relief 428
10-5 Deflagration Venting for Dust and Vapor Explosions 434
10-6 Venting for Fires External to the Process 440
10-7 Reliefs for Thermal Expansion of Process Fluids 444
Suggested Reading 447
Problems 449

Chapter 11: Hazards Identification and Evaluation 453

11-1 Introduction to Hazard Identification/Evaluation and Risk Analysis 455
11-2 Non-Scenario-Based Hazard Identification/Evaluation Methods 463
11-3 Scenario-Based Hazard Identification/Evaluation Methods 471
11-4 Documentation and Actions Required for Hazard Identification and Evaluation 483
Suggested Reading 483
Problems 483

Chapter 12: Risk Analysis and Assessment 487
12-1 Review of Probability Theory 487
12-2 Event Trees 501
12-3 Fault Trees 506
12-4 Bow-Tie Diagrams 513
12-5 Quantitative Risk Analysis 514
12-6 Layer of Protection Analysis 515
12-7 Risk Assessment 526
Suggested Reading 530
Problems 530

Chapter 13: Safety Strategies, Procedures, and Designs 533
13-1 Process Safety Strategies 533
13-2 Safe Operating Procedures 537
13-3 Safe Work Practices 538
13-4 Designs for Process Safety 541
13-5 Designs for Runaway Reactions 547
13-6 Designs and Practices for the Safe Handling of Dusts 548
Suggested Reading 549
Problems 550

Chapter 14: Case Histories and Lessons Learned 551
14-1 Process Safety Culture 552
14-2 Compliance with Standards 553
14-3 Process Safety Competency 554
14-4 Workplace Involvement 555
14-5 Stakeholder Outreach 556
14-6 Process Knowledge Management 556
14-7 Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis 557
14-8 Operating Procedures 558
14-9 Safe Work Practices 559
14-10 Asset Integrity and Reliability 560
14-11 Contractor Management 561
14-12 Training and Performance Assurance 562
14-13 Management of Change 563
14-14 Operational Readiness 564
14-15 Conduct of Operations 565
14-16 Emergency Management 566
14-17 Incident Investigation 567
14-18 Measurement and Metrics 569
14-19 Auditing 570
14-20 Management Review and Continuous Improvement 570
14-21 Summary 571
Suggested Reading 571
Problems 572

Appendix A: Unit Conversion Constants 573
Appendix B: Flammability Data for Selected Hydrocarbons 577
Appendix C: Saturation Vapor Pressure Data 583
Appendix D: Special Types of Reactive Chemicals 585
Appendix E: Hazardous Chemicals Data for a Variety of Chemical Substances 591
Appendix F: Process Diagrams 599


Index 603

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