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Beyond Chaos: The Expert Edge in Managing Software Development

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Beyond Chaos: The Expert Edge in Managing Software Development

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  • Copyright 2001
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-201-71960-6
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-201-71960-4

The popularity of the Management Forum in Software Development Magazine is not surprising. Because the majority of software development projects fail to come in on time, on budget, or on specification, software development managers are constantly seeking out management approaches and techniques that will help them achieve success. Many software development projects deteriorate into a state of chaos.

In Beyond Chaos, the keenest contributions to the Management Forum have been incorporated into a single volume to reveal best practices in managing software projects and organizations. The forty-five essays contained in this book are written by many of the leading names in software development, software engineering, and technical management. Each piece has been selected and edited to provide highly focused ideas and suggestions that can be translated into immediate practice. Pragmatic and provocative, they address key management concerns involving people, planning and productivity, coping under pressure, quality, development processes, and leadership and teamwork.

Highlights of the book include:

  • Larry Constantine, "Dealing with Difficult People: Changing the Changeable"
  • Karl Wiegers, "First Things First: A Project Manager's Primer"
  • Capers Jones, "Productivity by the Numbers: What Can Speed Up or Slow Down Software Development"
  • Ed Yourdon, "Death March: Surviving a Hopeless Project"
  • Dave Thomas, "Web-Time Development: High-Speed Software Engineering"
  • Meilir Page-Jones, "Seduced by Reuse: Realizing Reusable Components"
  • Jim Highsmith, "Order for Free: An Organic Model for Adaptation"
  • Steve McConnell, "Managing Outsourced Projects: Project Management Inside-Out"

These and many more insightful and advisory essays together represent the cutting edge in software development management and the collective wisdom of the field's most knowledgeable practitioners. Both entertaining and enlightening, Beyond Chaos will enrich your skills and enhance your deeper understanding of the process of bringing software from idea to reality.



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Table of Contents

I. IT'S ABOUT PEOPLE.

1. Dealing with Difficult People: Changing the Changeable.

Larry Constantine.

2. Avoiding Feedback Traps: Improving Customer and Client Communication.

Naomi Karten.

3. These are Trained Professionals: Beyond Training to Transformation.

Larry Constantine.

4. Maintaining Your Balance: Managing Working Relationships.

Sue Petersen.

5. Job Qualifications: On Hiring the Best.

Larry Constantine.

6. Problem-Solving Meta-Rules: Habits of Productive People.

Larry Constantine.

II. PROJECT MANAGEMENT.

7. First Things First: A Project Manager's Primer.

Karl Wiegers.

8. Money Bags and Baseball Bats: Sponsorship Rules.

Rob Thomsett.

9. Productivity by the Numbers: What Can Speed Up or Slow Down Software Development.

Capers Jones.

10. Software Waste Management: Managing Data Migration.

John Boddie.

11. When in Doubt, Blame Everybody: The Responsibility for Usability.

Lucy Lockwood.

12. Creative Input: From Feature Fantasies to Practical Products.

Larry Constantine.

13. Software Collaborations: Managing the Complexities of Cooperation.

Mary Loomis.

14. Managing Outsourced Projects: Project Management Inside Out.

Steve McConnell.

15. Tough Customers: Toward Win-Win Solutions.

Ulla Merz.

16. Avoiding the Iceberg: Reading the Project Warning Signs.

Ed Ziv.

17. Lemonade from Lemons: Learning from Project Failure.

Norman L. Kerth.

III. UNDER PRESSURE.

18. Death March: Surviving a Hopeless Project.

Ed Yourdon.

19. Web-Time Development: High-Speed Software Engineering.

Dave Thomas.

20. Taking the Crunch Out of Crunch Mode: Alternatives to Mandatory Overtime.

Johanna Rothman.

21. Reducing Cycle Time: Getting Through Bottlenecks, Blocks, and Bogs. Dennis J. Frailey.
22. Dot-Com Management: Surviving the Startup Syndrome. Tony Wasserman.
23. Cutting Corners: Shortcuts in Model-Driven Web Development.

Larry Constantine.

IV. QUALITY REQUIRED.

24. No More Excuses: Innovative Technology and Irrelevant Tangents.

Peter Coffee.

25. The Mess Is Your Fault: Toward the Software Guild.

Michael Vizard.

26. Seduced by Reuse: Realizing Reusable Components.

Meilir Page-Jones.

27. Real-Life Requirements: Caught Between Quality and Deadlines.

Larry Constantine.

28. Rules Rule: Business Rules as Requirements.

Ellen Gottesdiener.

29. Taming the Wild Web: Business Alignment in Web Development.

Lucy Lockwood.

30. Calming Corporate Immune Systems: Overcoming Risk Aversion.

Gifford Pinchot and Gene Callahan.

31. Inventing Software: Breakthroughs on Demand.

Larry Constantine.

V. DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES AND PRACTICES.

32. Order for Free: An Organic Model for Adaptation.

Jim Highsmith.

33. Beyond Level Five: From Optimization to Adaptation.

Jim Highsmith.

34. Optimization or Adaptation: In Pursuit of a Paradigm.

Sylvain Hamel and Jim Highsmith.

35. Adaptive Software Development: An Experience Report.

James Emery.

36. Creating a Culture of Commitment: Of Deadlines, Discipline, and Management Maturity.

Larry Constantine.

37. The Commando Returns: Learning from Experience in the Trenches.

David Thielen.

38. Persistent Models: Models as Corporate Assets.

Larry Constantine.

39. Card Magic for Managers: Low-Tech Techniques for Design and Decisions.

Ron Jeffries.

40. Throwaway Software: Delivering Through Discards.

Dwayne Phillips.

41. Unified Hegemony: Beyond Universal Solutions.

Larry Constantine.

VI. LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK.

42. Scaling Up: Teamwork in the Large.

Larry Constantine.

43. Sustaining Teamwork: Promoting Life-Cycle Teams.

Peter Jones.

44. Managing from the Below: The Russian Embassy Method.

John Boddie.

45. On Becoming a Leader: Advice for Tomorrow's Development Managers.

Larry Constantine.

References.
Index. 0201719606T04062001.

Preface

Chaos. Not the inchoate state of the early universe, not the ill-behaved subject of a specialized branch of mathematics, not the mid-revolutionary fragmentation of a society in transition, but coding chaos--the everyday reality of projects that develop software applications for computers and the World Wide Web.

Countless managers struggle for control and stability, for accountability and predictability amidst this chaos. From the project leaders, who provide the day-to-day oversight and guidance all the way up to the CIOs, whose charge is strategic direction and corporate-wide coordination, they struggle to understand and manage technology and processes of enormous complexity made all the more complex and unmanageable by the relentless and accelerating pace of technological change.

Herding squirrels. Corralling cats. Taming the mongrel hordes. Whatever the metaphor, the challenges of managing software development are legend. The stories are alarmingly similar for projects of every scope and size, whether staffed by the arrayed forces of thousands of programmers and testers or tackled by a small team of freelancers. The budget may be blown by a hundred percent or more and deadline upon deadline may be passed like so many exits on a freeway. Rarely do software development projects meet budget constraints, techni-cal objectives, and delivery schedules--if indeed recognizable constraints, objectives, and schedules exist. Applications that are far more complex than a highrise office building have sometimes been launched with little more planning than a sketch on the back of a napkin.

Some managers simply give up and accept this uncontrolled chaos as the state of affairs, an unchangeable reality and the unavoidable price of dealing with a highly paid and poorly understood profession. They accept the reality of seeking discipline among the undisciplined, of perpetually pushing the envelope of the possible, or of seeking certainty where specifications are little more than executive fantasies and deadlines are the arbitrary impositions of uninformed marketing managers.

Some managers seek refuge in mindnumbing manuals of procedure and in the step-by-step details of elaborately defined processes. They rationalize the investment in expensive systems that promise predictability through the imposition of regulation and regimentation.

Some managers, defining defeat as success, instead celebrate unmanageable chaos as the crucible of creation, the necessary and desired context in which to unleash the powers of the digital genie that will transform life on earth.

Beyond chaos, however, beyond surrender or celebration, is another view of software development--the view that software development projects and software developers are indeed manageable, that chaos is not an inevitable condition or concomitant. In this view, salvation dwells in the details, success lies in subtle insights, and control is achieved through thoughtful attention and planning.

The expert edge is the difference. Compiled in this book are the insights, inspiration, practical pointers, and provocative thinking of an elite assemblage of working managers and practicing consultants--the recognized experts who contributed monthly to The Management Forum. The Forum, a regular feature in the respected industry publication Software Development, occupied the prestigious inside back page of the magazine and proved to be one its most popular features.

Written for busy working managers, the Forum featured pragmatic, provocative essays by the leading thinkers and doers in software and Web development, software engineering, and technical management, including such industry luminaries as Ed Yourdon, Capers Jones, Meilir Page-Jones, Steve McConnell, and Jim Highsmith. The column set high standards for the clarity and quality of both the writing and the thinking it expressed. Every guest columnist was charged with the twin tasks of providing something that a working manager could put to use tomorrow and of offering something to think about for the next week.

Not surprisingly in light of the diversity of contributors, the discussions reprinted in this volume represent diverse views grounded in a variety of backgrounds and experiences. What they have in common, however, are common and positive threads--that software development and software developers are manageable, and that better management in this economically and technologically critical field is sorely needed.

The essays span such diverse topics as dealing with difficult people, managing from the bottom-up, coping with project failure, sustaining teamwork, and building software to throw away. Managers will find among the chapters the distilled essence of experience and the hard-won wisdom of those who have fought in the trenches of technical management, and won.

Highly focused analyses and specific suggestions are combined with provocative arguments and thoughtful perspectives. The essays have been edited and organized by broad subject matter and arranged to form a logical progression, finishing with what I hope will stand as a challenge and a look to the future of management and of software development.

Larry Constantine
Rowley, Massachusetts
March 2001



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Index

A

Adaptive development

     case study, 273–280

          lessons learned, 279–280

          methodology, 276–277

          productive development tools, 277–278

          team organization and composition, 278

     collaborations and, 254–257

     communication with stakeholders in, 280

     definition of, 270

     incentives in, 279–280

     limitations of, 274

     vs. optimization, 257, 259–264, 261, 265–271

     organic model of, 251–257

     process vs. pattern thinking in, 260–262

Allchin, Jim, 37–38

Anderson, Ann, 308

At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity (Kauffman), 253

B

Balance

     definition of, 31

     maintaining, 32

     in personal relationships, 30–31

Basic principles of design process, durability of, 34–35, 38

Bertalanffy, Ludwig von, 251

Best practices

     critique of, 263

     familiarity with, 54

     implementation of, 263

     information on, 174

     vs. personal style, 293

     standardization of, 199

Blank-filling, 42

Boddie, John, 73–79, 347–354

Body language, and personal relationships, 6

Boeing 777, development of, 332–337

Booch, Grady, 323

Boo.com, 169

Brainstorming, 41

Brooks, Frederick, 144, 188, 313

Brooks' Law, 159

Brown, Shona, 264

Burke, James, 34

Burning Chrome (Sterling), 189

Business goals. See also Goals

     and business rules, 225

     employee understanding of, 236

     and web development, 228–231

Business rules, 219–225

     application of, 221, 222–223

     and business goals, 225

     definition of, 220–221

     discovery and validation of, 223–225

     forms of, 221

     and requirements analysis, 220–221, 223–225

     in Unified Modeling Language/Unified Process, 222

     and use cases, 221, 222, 223

C

Callahan, Gene, 235–240

Capability inventory, 91–92

Capability Maturity Model (CMM), 253, 261. See also Optimization

     levels of maturity in, 283

     pros and cons of, 265–271

CASE

     critique of, 294

     in model construction, 302

     and teamwork, 344, 345

     and throwaway design, 318

Categorical language, and personal relationships, 6

Change management. See also Adaptive development

     automated, 71

     vs. collaboration, 256

     and productivity, 70, 71

     for Web sites, 175

Chaordic, definition of, 262

CMM. See Capability Maturity Model

Code restructuring tools, and productivity, 70, 71

Coffee, Peter, 187–194, 211–212, 213

Collaborations, 95–102

     and adaptability, 254–257

     characteristics of, 95–96

     collaborative networks, facilitation of, 256–257

     communication in, 98–99, 100

     conflict resolution process, 98

     and credit, 99

     examples of, 100–102

     forced, 99

     leadership-collaboration model, 260, 262–263

     leadership in, 96

     scheduling, 97

     in software design, unique features of, 100

     successful, characteristics of, 96–99

COM+, 192

COMDEX, product launches, 282

Communication. See also Language

     in collaborations, 98–99, 100

     with coworkers

          about deadlines, 156–157, 285

          about goals, 348–349

          asking for help, 315

          encouragement of, 351, 353–354

          productive and unproductive forms of, 28–30

          in teamwork, 278, 340, 341, 344–345, 348–349

     with customers, 14–15, 16–17, 357. See also Feedback; Usage-centered design

          about deadlines, 157–158

          about project requirements, 111–112, 214–217, 245, 275–276, 278, 306–307, 342

          common problems in, 112–114

          communication styles and, 117

          to minimize differences, 114–117

          in model driven approach, 181

          in Web site design, 230

     gossip

          destructiveness of, 29–30

          psychology of, 29

     with intrusive management, 124

     office design and, 85

     with sponsors, 62–63

     with stakeholders, in adaptive development, 280

     in usage-centered design, 93–94, 181

     in Web software development, 147

Competing on the Edge (Brown and Eisenhardt), 264

Complexity analysis tools, and productivity, 70, 71

Component-based approaches, 148

Component models, Microsoft vs. Java, 195–196

Computer Language Magazine, 289

Computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW), 366

Condit, Phil, 333

Configuration management, need for, 190

Conflict, resolution of, and sponsors, 58–59, 60

Consensus-building, in team management, 334–335

Constantine, Larry, 3–9, 19–26, 33–38, 34–35, 39–45, 83, 89–94, 144, 177–184, 211–217, 241–247, 281–287, 297–303, 321–328, 331–337, 355–366

Content/capability inventory, 91–92

Contracts

     in outsourced projects, 109

     renegotiation of, 118

     in vended services, 115–116

Control, need to maintain, 30–31. See also Balance

Cooper, Alan, 83

CORBA, 192

Coworkers, communicating with

     about deadlines, 156–157, 285

     about goals, 348–349

     asking for help, 315

     encouragement of, 351, 353–354

     productive and unproductive forms of, 28–30

     in teamwork, 340, 341, 344–345, 348–349

Creative input, from upper management, processing of, 89–94

Credit, in collaborations, 99

Cremeans, Jack, 33

Cross-platform development

     future of, 197–198

     hazards of, 190–191

Cultural changes, in adopting reusability, 206–208

Cultures of commitment

     characteristics of, 286–287

     deadlines in, 284–285

Customer profile, definition of, 90

Customers. See also Feedback

     communicating with, 14–15, 16–17, 357. See also Feedback; Usage-centered design

          about deadlines, 157–158

          about project requirements, 111–112, 214–217, 245, 275–276, 278, 306–307, 342

          common problems in, 112–114

          communication styles and, 117

          to minimize differences, 114–117

          in model driven approach, 181

          in Web site design, 230

     educating about development tradeoffs, 214–215, 826

     recognizing contributions from, 53

     reluctance of, to complain, 12–14

     renegotiating relationship with, 118

     and trust, 116

     understanding needs of, 51–52, 188

Cusumano, Michael, 35–36

Cycles of learning principle, 165–166

D

Data, accurate, importance of, 72–75

Data migration, 72–79

     error source identification in, 77–78

     in phased implementation, 78–79

     problems faced in, 75

     techniques for, 76–78

Deadlines

     communicating about

          with coworkers, 156–157, 285

          with customers, 157–158

     in culture of commitment, 284–285

     importance of, 282–283

     meeting, 281–287

     and trust, 281, 284–285

Death march projects

     inefficiency of, 292

     surviving, 137–144

Decline and Fall of the American Programmer (Yourden), 137

Defects

     automated tracking of, and productivity, 71

     and requirement creep, 190

     solutions to

          manager's role, 350

          and time pressure, 155–156

De Geus, Arie, 260

DeMarco, Tom, 144, 333

Denver Airport baggage handling system, 68

Design

     disposable, 318

     joint application design (JAD), 341

     joint essential modeling (JEM), 342

     need for, 291–292

     participatory, as team-building technique, 342

     scenario-driven, 342–343

     task-driven design, and UML, 323–324

     user-focused, 342

Development process. See also Adaptive development; Failed projects; Model driven approach; Productivity; Structure; Throwaway software

     and adaptability, 255

     adapting to programmer quality, 293–294

     basic principles, durability of, 34–35, 38

     best practices in, 174

     in culture of commitment, 286, 287

     customer-vendor agreement in, 116–117

     economies of scale in, 166

     future trends in, 191–194

     improvement of, as goal, 54–55, 266–267

     planning of, and productivity, 69–70

     rapid application development (RAD) and, 143, 146

     scenario-driven design, 342–343

     tailoring to project, 178

     uniform, pros and cons of, 324–325

     in Web environment. See Web environment

Development tools, proprietary, political aspects of, 196–198

DHTML (Dynamic HTML), 192, 193

Difficult people, dealing with, 3–9

Dijkstra, Edsgar, 34

Dissociative language, and personal relationships, 7

Documentation of design, importance of, 36–37, 38

Donnellon, Anne, 339

Dot-coms. See Web environment

"Double Dummy Spit and Other Estimating Games" (Thomsett), 141

Dynamic HTML (DHTML), 192, 193

E

Economies of scale, 166

Eisenhardt, Kathleen, 264

e-mail, and team communication, 344–345

Emergencies, strategies for handling, 309–310

Emery, Dale, 30, 215

Emery, James, 212, 213, 273–280

Error-prone modules, and maintenance productivity, 71

Escalators, in conversation, 6–7

Essential models, updating of, 301

Essential use cases

     cutting corners in, 91–92

     definition of, 94

     and models, 302

     and requirement creep, 216, 217

     and testing, 217

Estimation of project time

     model for, 68

     and productivity, 67, 68

     and time pressures, 141

Extreme Programming (XP), 268–269

     iteration planning in, 307–308

     paired programming in, 358

     release planning in, 305, 306–307

F

Fagan, Michael, 68

Failed projects

     coping strategies

          effective, 130–133

          unproductive, 128–129

     learning from, 127–133

     outsourced, example of, 104

     post-mortems for, 131–133

Fatigue, and productivity, 155–156

Feedback, 11–17

     broadening sources of, 32

     and miscommunication, 15–16

     proper use of, 11

     solicitation of, 12–14, 16–17

     as two-way street, 11, 16–17

     useful forms of, 14–15, 15–16

Food.com, 174

Fowler, Martin, 324

Frailey, Dennis J., 161–167

Function points

     information sources on, 66

     in measurement of project size, 69

     usefulness of, 66

G

Gates, Bill, 36, 196

General systems theory

     history of, 251

     organic models

          of adaptation, 251–257

          of organizations, 260–262

     as useful viewpoint, 363

Gentile, Chris, 183

Geriatric tools, for legacy applications, 71

Goals. See also Business goals

     in collaborations, 96

     communicating to coworkers, 348–349

     customer-vendor agreement in, 113–114

     defining, importance of, 122, 158

     effective, characteristics of, 122–123

     explicit, importance of, 208

     lack of, as warning sign, 121–122

     for process improvement, 54–55, 266–267

     for projects, 51–53

     SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Related to a primary objective, Time-bound), 122

Goldratt, Eliyahu, 162

Gossip

     destructiveness of, 29–30

     psychology of, 29

Gottesdiener, Ellen, 219–225

Guilds for developers, 198–201

     functions performed by, 199–201

     history of guilds, 198

     and labor-management relations, 200–201

     need for, 195–198

H

Hamel, Sylvain, 265–271

Hammer, Michael, 162

Heinlein, Robert, 178

Help, asking for, 315

Henderson-Sellers, Brian, 324

Hendrickson, Chet, 308

High-performance teams, 147

Highsmith, Jim, 251–257, 259–264, 265–271

Hildebrand, J. D., 289

Hiring, 33–34, 38

     and staff quality, 293–294

     in Web environment, 172–173

Hock, Dee, 262

Humphrey, Watts, 144, 283

I

IBM Systems Journal, 34

iMotors.com, 174

Incentives. See also Productivity

     in adaptive development, 279–280

     ownership as, 294

     perverse, 237, 238

     proper, 238–239

Inclusive language, and personal relationships, 7

Index cards, as planning tool, 305–311

Influencers, in conversation, 7–8

The Inmates Are Running the Asylum (Cooper), 83

Innovation

     vs. conventional thinking, 242–244

     fear of, 236, 241

     process of, 241–242, 246, 247

     resistance to, 244–246

     sources of, 241

Inspections. See also Reviews; Walk-throughs

     management attendance at, 351

     and productivity, 67, 68, 157

     value of, 268, 359–360

Intelligent agent technology, future of, 192

Interest in project, lack of, as warning sign, 120

ISO 9001, 325

Iteration planning, in extreme programming, 307–308

J

Jackson, Michael, 321

JAD (Joint application design), 341

Jasper, Dave, 34

Jeffries, Ron, 305–311

JEM (Joint Essential Modeling), 342

JIT (just-in-time) model, in software development, 147–148

JITR (just-in-time requirements), 181

JITT (just-in-time training), 21

Joint application design (JAD), 341

Joint essential modeling (JEM), 342

Jolt product excellence awards, 137

Jones, Capers, 65–72

Jones, Peter, 339–345

Judgmental language, and personal relationships, 7

Just-in-time (JIT) model, in software development, 147–148

Just-in-time requirements (JITR), 181

Just-in-time training (JITT), 21

K

Karten, Naomi, 11–17

Kauffman, Stuart, 253–254, 257

Kelly, Kevin, 254, 260

Kerth, Norman L., 127–133, 212, 214, 215

Kopp, Sheldon, 187, 364

Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth, 130

L

Landauer, Thomas, 189

Language

     counterproductive, 6–7

     as methodological term, 326–327

     relationship-building

          with coworkers, 7–8

          with customers, 16–17

Large-scale projects, management of, 331–337

Leadership. See also Management of people

     in collaborations, 96

     leadership-collaboration model, 260, 262–263

Legacy applications

     geriatric tools for, 71

     and resistance to innovation, 244–245

Librarian, role in team structure, 352–353

Lifecycle(s), 209

Lifecycle models, and business rules, 223

Lifetime learning, importance of, 364

Limit-stop language, and personal relationships, 6

Linux, 291, 336

Listening, and personal relationships, 8

Lister, Tom, 137, 333

Lockwood, Lucy, 81–87, 177, 227–233

Loomis, Mary, 95–102

Lotus Notes, 366

M

Mackenzie, Ken, 33, 34, 36–37

Maintenance

     definition of, 70

     and productivity, 70–71, 72

Management of people. See also Hiring; Management of projects; People; and specific topics

     bad managers, characteristics of, 28

     good managers, characteristics of, 28, 355–366

     hands-on approach, 347–354

     and inner balance, 30–33

     inspirational leadership, 362

     progress, recognizing and rewarding, 53, 359

     and rest time, 152

     sharing skills with subordinates, 362

     tensions inherent in, 27–28

     under time pressure, 144, 152. See also Time pressures

     and usability, 83–84

     in Web environment, 152

Management of projects. See also Collaborations; Outsourced project management; Sponsors; and specific topics

     basics of, 49–55

     best practices, familiarity with, 54

     big-picture thinking, 363–366

     challenges of, 212–213

     hands-on approach, 347–354

     large-scale, 331–337

     learning from past projects, 53–54

     priority of responsibilities, 50

     process improvement, as goal, 54–55, 266–267

     and productivity, 72

     progress, recognizing and rewarding, 53, 359

     self-evaluation in, 50–51

     and technological change, 363–365

     training and education in, 51

     upper management, input from, 89–94

McConnell, Steve, 103–110, 174

Meetings

     management of, 359

     planning, strategies for, 310

Merz, Ulla, 111–118

Meta data models, in data migration management, 76–77

Methods, and models, 297

Meyer, Christopher, 162

Microsoft

     business model of, 196

     Component Object Model, 195, 196

     corporate culture of, 36, 37–38

     software design at, 36–37

Microsoft Secrets (Cusumano and Selby), 35–36

Misuse of systems, forestalling, 191–192

Model(s)

     essential, updating of, 301

     maintenance of, 302–303

     persistent, 300–302, 303

     reuse of, 300–303

     in usage-centered design, 302–303

Model driven approach

     advantages of, 298, 299–300

     case study, 297–299

     evolution of, 297

     model development costs in, 300–302

     streamlining of

          by communicating with customer, 181

          essential use cases, 179–181

          navigation maps, 182

          pros and cons of, 177–179

          prototypes and, 182–183

          teamwork and, 182–183

     in Web software development, 147–148

The Moon is a Harsh Mistress (Heinlein), 178

Mulaly, Alan, 333

Murphy's Law, 124

The Mythical Man-Month (Brooks), 141, 188, 313

N

Naval Postgraduate School, 274–275

Netscape, 256

Neuromancer (Gibson), 189

Nielsen, Jacob, 364

O

Object-oriented programming, 193–194. See also Reusability

     and code lifecycle, 209

     switching to, 206–209

O'Brien, Larry, 184

100% Pure Java model, 195, 196

OPEN process, 266

     and UML, 324

Optimization

     vs. adaptation, 257, 259–264, 265–271

     history of, 252–253

     limitations of, 253

Oracle, 196

Organic models

     of adaptation, 251–257

     of organizations, 260–262

Outsourced project management

     benefits of, 110

     contract, components of, 109

     failed, example of, 104

     importance of, 104

     project specifications, importance of, 105

     project tracking, 109

     pros and cons of, 106

     request for proposal (RFP), components of, 106–108

     steps in, 105–109

     vendor selection, 106–108

Ownership, as incentive, 294

P

Page-Jones, Meilir, 20, 34, 203–209, 323

Paired programming, 358

Participatory design, as team-building technique, 342

Pattern thinking, vs. process thinking, 260–262

People. See also Management of people; Training

     adding to project, 159

     basic nature of, 364–365

     difficult, dealing with, 3–9

     and incentives, 237

     ordinary, motivation of, 361–362

     politics, ubiquity of, 361

Perls, Fritz, 30

Persistent models, 300–302, 303

Peters, Chris, 36

Petersen, Sue, 24, 27–32

Phillips, Dwayne, 313–319

Pinchot, Gifford, 235–240

Plauger, P. J., 358

PM Network, 51

Pressure. See Time pressures

Prigogine, Ilya, 251

Privacy, safeguarding of, 191–192

Problem-solving, 39–45

     blank-filling technique, 42

     brainstorming technique, 41

     and experience, 39

     "sleep-on-it" technique, 44–45

     unnecessary labor, avoidance of, 43–44, 157

     wheel-spinning, avoidance of, 42–45

     writer's block, escaping from, 40–42

Process. See Development process

Process thinking, vs. pattern thinking, 260–262

Product definition, 91

Product framework, definition of, 90

Productive development tools, in adaptive development, 277–278

Productivity, 65–72. See also Incentives; Time pressures

     average annual, 33

     and bureaucracy, 167

     and defining of goals, 157–158

     factors affecting, 67–71, 72

     fatigue and, 154–159

     in maintenance, 70–71

     maximization of, 159

     monthly, distribution of, 66

     principles of, 165–166

     and project cost, 66–67

     prototypes and, 182–183

     quantification of, 165, 167

     range of, 293

     scheduling and, 67, 68

     vs. time spent, 167

     value-added analysis and, 163–165

     working conditions and, 67–68, 294–295

Product specification, 91

Programming, basic principles, durability of, 34–35, 38

Progress, useful, vs. mere innovation, 188

Progressive language, and personal relationships, 8

Project Management Institute, 51

Proprietary development tools, political aspects of, 196–198

Prototypes

     and productivity, 182–183

     as throwaway software, 314

Prototyping, visual, 343

Q

Quality

     project-specific definitions of, 51–52

     traditional definitions of, 52

Quality control. See also Testing

     and productivity, 69, 72, 166

     and time pressures, 188–189, 212–213

Quality Function Deployment, 215

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