definition and value of availability performance
conceptual design phase
basic design phase
detailed design phase
construction and startup phase
commercial operations phase
In today's manufacturing environment, the integration of commercial, production, maintenance, and engineering functions is a common and crucial goal. In this timely volume, Richard G. Lamb presents a new standard within the enterprise and plant design management. Lamb shows readers how to advance the plant's role in enterprise business performance and leadership by most cost effectively achieving the mechanical availability necessary to perform in the face of current events, business cycles, and industry trends. Performance is from the designed and managed reliability and maintainability of its equipment.
I. DEFINITION AND VALUE OF AVAILABILITY PERFORMANCE.Definition and Goals of Availability.
Engineering and Management. Availability as a Core Subsystem of Plant and Business Performance. Attributes of Availability Performance. Summary. Bibliography.Financial Ramifications of Availability.
Engineering and Management. Introduction. Consequences for Life-Cycle Cash Profiles. Payout and Discounted Cash-Flow Analysis. Return on Investment Analysis. The Break-Even Point and Operating Leverage Analysis. Summary. Bibliography.
II. THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN PHASE.Availability Engineering and Management and the Conceptual Design Phase.
Introduction. Analyze Owner Needs. Establish Management Policies for Availability. Engineering and Management. Formulate Plant Operational Requirements. Formulate, Evaluate, and Select from Alternate Production Processes. Develop the Plant Conceptual Design. Develop the Availability Concept. Develop the Maintenance Operation Concept. Bibliography.PREPARATION FOR PROJECT EXECUTION.
Introduction. The Challenges of a New Discipline. Summary of Requirements. Develop Availability Requirements for Contractor Screening, Selection, and Contract Documents. Assure Planning for Availability Tasks, Costs, Time, and Resources. Prepare to Monitor and Track Availability Engineering. Summary. Bibliography.
III. BASIC DESIGN PHASE.Foundations to Maintain Integrity of the Availability Scheme.
Introduction. Develop Availability-Centered Practices Control Documents. Develop Life-Cycle Improvement, Change and Data Management Functions and Systems. Bibliography.Development of the Plant as a System of Availability Parameters.
Introduction. Identify, Gather, and Analyze Data for Availability Design. Develop Plant Logic Diagrams. Allocate Availability Parameters to Plant Logic Diagrams. The Production Process and Availability Parameters Compared. Bibliography.Develop Models to Design Profit-Effective Availability Performance.
Introduction. Develop the Plant Availability Model. Develop the Plant Financial Model. Bibliography.Analysis of Failures and Development of Maintenance Strategy.
Introduction. Availability-Centered Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis. Maintenance Logic-Tree Analysis. Bibliography.Analysis and Optimization of Plant Availability Performance.
Introduction. Evaluate and Optimize Plant Availability Performance. Assess Plant Layout for Maintainability. Bibliography.Traditional Plant Design during the Basic Design Phase.
Introduction. Refine the Conceptual Design and Related Diagrams and Data. Determine and Develop the Process Control Strategy. Design the Instrumentation System. Develop Performance Specifications, and Select and Size Equipment. Size Lines. Determine Materials of Construction and Corrosion Allowances. Diagram, Analyze, and Determine Utility Needs. Develop the Plant Layout. Design Preliminary Piping Layout. Conduct Preliminary Hazard Evaluation. Identify and Begin Procurement of Long-Lead-Time Delivery Items. Develop Equipment Specifications. Develop Bulk Material Specifications. Final Comments for Availability Engineering and Management in the Basic Design Phase. Bibliography.
IV. THE DETAILED DESIGN PHASE.Development of Maintenance Tasks and Procedures.
Introduction. Maintenance Task Analysis. Needs Analysis and Design of Maintenance Instructions, Procedures, and Manuals. Evaluate Equipment for Maintainability from Human Factors Perspective. Bibiliography.Determination of Resource Levels for Operational Availability.
Introduction. Determine the Human and Material Resources for Maintenance Operations. Detailed Design of Support Facilities and Equipment. Determine, Plan, and Develop the Training Program for Maintenance Personnel. Bibliography.Organization Design for Maintenance Operation Functions and Availability Management.
Introduction. Analysis and Design of Maintenance Operation Functions. Organization Design for Availability Management. Bibliography.Traditional Plant Design During the Detailed Design Phase.
Introduction. The Scope of the Traditional Detailed Design Phase. Detailed Design, Drawings, and Specifications. Detailed Safety and Hazards Analysis. Procure Engineered Items and Equipment. Procure Bulk Materials and Nonengineered Items. Expediting and Quality Assurance and Control. Needs Analysis and Design of Instructions, Procedures, and Manuals. Summary. Bibliography.
V. THE CONSTRUCTION AND STARTUP PHASE.Construction and Planning for Startup.
Introduction. Construction. Planning for Startup. Bibliography.Executing Plant Startup.
Introduction. Mechanical and Electrical Completion and Precommissioning. Commissioning, Performance Testing,and Post-Commissioning. Summary. Bibliography.
VI. COMMERCIAL OPERATIONS PHASE.Classic Cycles of Production System Management.
Introduction. Classic Cycles of Production System Operation Management. The Strategic Cycle. The Research and Development Cycle. The Aggregate Planning Cycle. The Operating Budget Cycle. The Plant Level Production Planning and Resource Acquisition Cycle. The Production Cycle. The Maintenance Cycle. The Performance Testing and Evaluation Cycle. The Product, Production Process, and Plant Development Cycles. Bibliography.Availability Management in the Strategic Processes.
Introduction. Analysis of Plant Availability. Research and Developmentfor Availability Performance. Availability Engineering andManagement in Cycles of Plant Development. Summary. Bibliography.Plant Capacity Matching and Budgeting Cycles in Availability Management.
Introduction. Adjusting Availability to Match PlantProductive Capacity to Forecasted Market Demand. Adjusting Availability to MaximumShort-Term Financial Performance. Summary. Bibliography.Production Cycles and Evaluation in Availability Management.
Introduction. Maintenance Operation Cycle Planning and Functioning. Test, Evaluation and Audit of the Availability Scheme as a System. Commercial Production without Availability Engineering and Management. Summary. Bibliography.Index.
A manufacturer's overall business success will be determined by the following integrated dimensions of performance: Fitness of the manufacturer's products for use and their producibility.
The degree to which its manufacturing plant as a system of equipment is physically available to perform. The degree to which the manufacturing process and its operation can efficiently produce the products. Maximum effectiveness and efficiency of sales and distribution of the resulting productive capacity.
These primary money-making subsystems almost completely determine the manufacturer's competitiveness, profits, and productivity of working and capital assets. They are identified here as a point of reference to define the purpose of this book, which is to describe the principles and the approach necessary to develop and manage the plant's mechanical availability to perform. The discipline to serve this purpose is little known outside its long and successful applications in the defense and aerospace industries. From there, it has evolved to some degree in the nuclear power industry, which has adopted some of its techniques and management practices. Until now, the field has not been reinvented and advanced to serve manufacturing enterprises and their plants. The available literature has focused on the product (i.e., weapon system) rather than the manufacturing plant.
This book explores for the first time a comprehensive solution design framework. It is also the first time the field has been integrated with widely known principles of plant startup and production system commercial operations.
Therefore, the purpose of the book is important. History has left the development and management of availability performance with great room for advancement. Thus, the book is the key to the manufacturer's currently most potent investment opportunity. In fact, this opportunity is one that will most decide each manufacturer's continuing competitiveness.
The book's publication is also timely. Many manufacturers have already expressed their desire for availability performance. It is common to find that pivotal corporate, operating company, and plant-level policies have already been established. They may directly mandate that reliability, maintainability, and, therefore, availability are challenges to be solved. This is the same for existing facilities and future capital projects. There are also many indirect mandates for availability engineering and management. This is because goals such as asset utilization, perfection in manufacturing, etc., are dependent upon the availability discipline for defining their role in overall business success.
Availability Engineering versus Total Productive Maintenance Maintenance is the largest activity area within availability performance as a core business process. In other words, the "production" dimension or major "product" of availability design and management is maintenance. Therefore, the purpose of maintenance operations (including maintenance activities done by operating personnel) is to deliver the currently required availability performance the plant, as a system of equipment, is capable of providing.
The subject of the book, however, is not total productive maintenance. Nor is it total productive maintenance with a different name or variation in approach. Availability engineering and management has a much larger domain. It subsumes the issues presented in total productive maintenance literature.
The primary goal of total productive maintenance is to achieve maximum equipment effectiveness. The goal of availability engineering and management is to determine and achieve the availability performance necessary to the manufacturer's corporate, operating company, and plant-level business performance and leadership. Therefore, total productive maintenance is driven to maximize the parts of the plant as a production system. By comparison, availability engineering and management works to suboptimize the parts, thus maximizing the whole.
The design processes of total productive maintenance and availability engineering and management are very different. The processes used in total productive maintenance are problem solving approaches like those used in focused quality improvement projects. Those used in availability engineering and management focus on designing and managing a production business system.
This difference highlights the distinction made by business process reengineering literature between quality improvement and step level advancements in business results.
The point of making this distinction is that the subject of this book is a critical advancement. It has long been searched for by management professionals. Manufacturers are now bombarded by methods such as total productive maintenance, reliability engineering, availability (RAM) modeling, life-cycle and activity- based costing, reliability centered maintenance, etc. However, the immense potential of these is not achievable outside the system of processes to design and manage dynamic, cost-effective plant level availability performance. In other words, the field of availability forms a basis for these methods.
Furthermore, without availability engineering these methods can easily reduce rather than advance plant performance.
Readers and Their Needs. This book is written for technical and management professionals in the continuous production industries. This includes industries such as oil and gas production, pipelines, petrochemical and chemical, refining, pulp and paper, power, food, etc. It also includes industries that produce discrete products. The common thread is that they require substantial systems of equipment.
However, it could easily apply to noncontinuous production operations (i.e., job shops) in which equipment and its maintenance is critical to productive capacity.
The book is written for people from many organizational levels and functions. Design and management of availability performance spans the domains of technical and management roles in general business and production operations management. This integration begins with the initial phases of design and continues through the plant's operating life.
Therefore, this book addresses the concerns of the following readers:
Plant and general managers.
These readers need to understand the challenges, business consequences, and approaches to achieving maximally dynamic and cost-effective availability performance.
Managers of plant capital projects and performance advancement programs.
They must be able to determine whether the planned approach is appropriate and comprehensive.
Plant design engineers and business discipline specialists involved in executing the planned approach.
These readers have a dual need: To incorporate the requirements of availability design in the traditional approach to capital projects and to effectively participate in the subject projects and programs.
Maintenance operation managers, personnel and specialized experts.
These readers need a process to guide them as they align maintenance operations to be in the business of delivering the availability performance the plant is capable of.
Computer systems integrators.
Availability performance requires the integration of computer systems and software. Thus, these readers need comprehensive detail to give them vision and guide them in this challenge.
Process safety and environmental management professionals.
Their need is to understand a field that is fundamental to the mechanical integrity of critical equipment.
The book is important to another group of readers outside the continuous production industries. The field was first developed decades ago by the military for weapons and aerospace systems.
Practitioners in those sectors are now seeking employment in industry as military spending decreases. However, they are not versed in the application of the field to the industries now discovering its importance. Furthermore, their experience in the field of availability engineering and managements is in the design of products rather than manufacturing systems. Nor are they familiar with the design and management activities for these plants.
The book is also important to the many management consultants in the field of business process reengineering. The book's subject is repeatedly revealed to be a primary target for reengineering. It is one of several that will most frequently be found to affect their clients' business results. Furthermore, the field of availability engineering and management is truly representative of the innovation reengineering practitioners seek.
What To, Why To, and How To
Everybody knows the saying, "To give a fish is to feed a person for a day, to teach how to fish is to feed a person for a lifetime." This philosophy is germane to this book.
The book is written to teach the availability discipline as a system of design and management activities. Thus, it is a what to, how to, and why to book. The description of what to and how to is used as a foundation to explain why to. Accordingly, it has the following structure:
The discipline is presented to track the phases of development in the plant's life cycle. The phases begin with design and progress though the plant's producing life. A flow of top-level design and management processes are charted for each life cycle phase.
Each process is then presented in a flowchart and explained as development tasks and management subprocesses.
Throughout the book these three levels of work flow from the top down and are used as a platform to explain the why to of availability engineering and management.
Readers will benefit from the book's organization in two ways.
First, they will have information structured in a manner that can be directly applied to plan and execute programs for achieving necessary availability performance.
Second, they will gain the philosophical knowledge to think originally in these pursuits rather than be restricted to a recipe.
Presenting the how to of the many individual analytical tools and probability theory is potentially counterproductive. The literature, expertise and services for treating the how to of these items are already widely available. To rigorously explain them here is a potential distraction to establishing the reader's ability to fish.
However, knowledge of these tools and theories are fundamental to presenting the availability discipline. Therefore, the book will still explore their purpose, design issues, processes, and why and when they are necessary. To teach the reader to fish, it is still necessary to describe how these known pieces are applied and then become part of managing availability performance. This, as part of detailing the availability discipline, is the problem that remains to be solved. The how to of the pieces has already been solved and practiced.
Capital Projects and Existing Plants.
As mentioned, the book presents availability engineering and management with respect to the plant's life cycle. The life-cycle phases include the initial feasibility and design phases, construction and startup, and the plant's producing life. Improvements, modifications, and capital projects will also be part of the producing phase.
This approach is suitable for the development of availability performance beginning with the plant as a capital project as opposed to projects for advancing the availability performance of an existing plant. The described development and management processes are equally relevant to both.
Compared to the capital project, reengineering availability performance in an existing facility is a greater challenge. The plant has already taken on a life of its own-albeit one of suboptimal business results.
A natural response is to approach the advancement of availability performance with piecemeal techniques.
Focusing on individual plant items, functions, and resources. Plant- level performance becomes a "blackbox" that these individual initiatives hope to affect.
The alternative is the process described in this book. It evaluates the elements of plant availability performance that have been developed by intent or default; determines an obtainable ideal availability scheme; and formulates a realistic master plan to reach that ideal over time.
In that sequence, the process of the book focuses on the analysis, development, and management of maintenance operations. This begins with the recognition that its business is to deliver the current necessary plant-level availability. Thus, management's goal is to align plant field and support functioning to achieve its desired performance. This alignment will complement the availability factors that are now generally inflexible.
Projects to expand or modify existing plants fall between these two extremes. Thus, they too present a challenge beyond that for a straight forward capital project. However, once again the process is still applicable.
The life cycle approach of this book will benefit all types of readers. It serves as a baseline of knowledge of availability engineering and maintenance. From there readers can devise an approach to their current challenge. In other words, an overriding goal of this book is to enable its reader to develop and implement a program for any plant-new or existing.
This book is the development of a long sought solution approach to a fundamental area of plant performance. In industry, it is the area that has been least charted and is now management's greatest opportunity to advance production plant performance.
The development of the solution process of the book required the contribution of many people-it is teamwork performed on a large informal scale. I have had the occasion to discuss the field with many people. In long and short discussions, they shared the learning and details of their experience. Thus, they tested, challenged and advanced our combined understanding of the evolving solution approach. When they read this book, they will recognize their influence. I am also personally blessed by the gift of their time.