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Applications In Electro-Optics

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Applications In Electro-Optics

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Features

  • Essential background on electromagnetism and related sciences—Introduces electromagnetism, electric and magnetic fields, capacitors, resistors, potentials, current, magnetic flux, frequency, wavelength, impedance, Maxwell's equations, and other key concepts.
    • Ensures that students master the fundamental concepts and theories they need before they can successfully study optoelectronics. Ex.___

  • Broad applications coverage—Introduces representative optoelectronics applications in many fields, including broadband Internet access, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), routing/switching, medical technology, motion sensors, remote controls, and more.
    • Helps students prepare to enter the field of optoelectronics, one of the most rapidly growing fields in engineering. Ex.___

  • Practical lab experiments—Includes 15 applications and laboratory experiences, from He-Ne lasers to linear displacement transducers.
    • Gives students hands-on experience in solving contemporary optoelectronics problems and working in optics laboratory environments. Ex.___

  • Wide-ranging coverage of devices and components—Introduces the most important devices and components of optic and optoelectronic systems, including lenses, mirrors, prisms, beam splitters, lasers, semiconductors, diodes, LEDs, liquid crystals, resonators, multiplexers, and photo-detectors.
    • Helps students understand the key elements of the optic and optoelectronic systems they may be asked to build. Ex.___

  • Detailed introduction to fiber optics—Explains the fiber construction of step-index and graded-index fibers; key fiber characteristics; and each key cause of signal loss.
    • Gives students the practical grounding they need to begin building a wide variety of fiber optics systems. Ex.___

  • Entire section on signal processing—Introduces signal processing coverage that is essential for successful development of optoelectronics or photonics-based communications systems.
    • Helps students master critical signal processing techniques that are ignored by most optics and optoelectronics texts. Ex.___

Description

  • Copyright 2002
  • Dimensions: K
  • Pages: 464
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-087038-2
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-087038-4

The complete introduction to optoelectronics for every technical professional.

  • A complete, accessible introduction to electro-optics applications, principles, and theory
  • Essential concepts of optics, electricity, magnetism, transmission lines, and electromagnetism
  • Covers every key component of electro-optic systems
  • Includes coverage of signal processing and fiber optics
  • Contains 15 practical, hands-on laboratory experiences and applications

Optoelectronics technologies are at the heart of the communications revolution, and are increasingly central to other fields as well. Applications In Electro-Optics offers a complete, accessible introduction to the key principles and theories underlying optoelectronics. It combines an easy-to-understand tutorial with extensive examples, sample problems, wide-ranging applications coverage, and 15 hands-on laboratory experiences — ranging from He-Ne lasers to linear displacement transducers. Coverage includes:

  • Essential background for understanding electro-optics: electromagnetism, transmission lines, electric/magnetic fields, capacitors, resistors, potentials, current, magnetic flux, frequency, wavelength, impedance, and Maxwell's equations
  • Elements of optoelectronic systems: lenses, mirrors, prisms, beam splitters, lasers, semiconductors, diodes, LEDs, liquid crystals, resonators, multiplexers, and photo-detectors
  • A detailed introduction to fiber optics, including key fiber characteristics and causes of signal loss
  • Essential coverage of signal processing found in no other book on optoelectronics
  • Diffraction, index of refraction, interferometers, filters, and numerical aperture

With the rapid growth in optoelectronics applications, a broad understanding of the field is essential to more working engineers, and students need to master its fundamentals sooner than ever before. Applications in Electro-Optics is the lucid, application-focused tutorial both professionals and students have been searching for.

Sample Content

Online Sample Chapter

Electro-Optics: Fundamentals of Light

Table of Contents



Preface.


Acknowledgments.


1. Fundamentals of Light.

Introduction. Light Communication. The Fiber Cable. The Communication System. Summary.



2. Electrostatics.

The Electric Field. Electric Flux Density. Conductors, Semiconductors, and Dielectrics. Potential. Capacitance. Resistance. Displacement. Power and Energy. Maxwell's Equations. Summary.



3. Magnetostatics.

Magnetic Field Intensity. Magnetic Flux Density. Magnetic Properties of Materials. Inductance. Magnetic Energy. Magnetic Scalar Potential. Maxwell's Equations. Summary.



4. Electromagnetics.

Maxwell's, Continuity, and the Lorentz Force Equations. The Electric and Magnetic Fields. Poynting's Vector. Polarization. Boundary Conditions. Faraday's Law of Induction. Plane Waves in Various Media. Plane Waves at Oblique Incidence. Brewster's Angle. Summary.



5. Transmission Lines and Waveguides.

Transmission Lines and Circuits. Transmission Lines and Reflections. Transmission Lines and Input Impedance. Some Special Transmission Lines. Power Movement on a Lossless Transmission Line. TE and TM Transmission Modes. Summary.



6. The Nature of Light.

Ray and Wave Optics. Reflection/Refraction. Diffraction. Polarization of Light. Double Refraction. Optical Activity. Summary.



7. Devices.

Mirrors-Concave and Convex. Lenses-Convergent and Divergent. Prisms. Beamsplitters. Optical Filters. Resonator. Lasers. Summary.



8. Components.

Semiconductor Theory. Semiconductor Diodes. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). Photodetectors. Liquid Crystal Optics. Multiplexers. Summary.



9. Fiber Construction and Characteristics.

Fiber Construction. Coupling and Connections. Dispersion and Attenuation in Fibers. Wavelength Division Multiplexing. Summary.



10. Communication/Signal Processing.

Modulation and Demodulation. Analog and Digital Communication. Digital Communication. Optical Communication. Optical Signal Processing. Fabry-Perot Filter. Thin-Film Interference Filter. Tunable Filters. Summary.



11. Applications.

Laboratory 1-Characteristics of a Helium-Neon Laser. Laboratory 2-Polarization, Reflection, and Filtering. Laboratory 3-Refraction and Index of Refraction. Laboratory 4-Index of Refraction for Solids. Laboratory 5-Lenses. Laboratory 6-Diffraction. Laboratory 7-Interferometers. Laboratory 8-Thin-Film Interference and Filters. Laboratory 9-Fiber Optics. Laboratory 10-Numerical Aperture. Laboratory 11-LED. Laboratory 12-Photodetectors. Laboratory 13-Fiber Coupling. Laboratory 14-Fiber Optic Communication. Laboratory 15-Linear Displacement.



Appendix A. Math Operations.

Trigonometric Identities. Fourier Transforms. Some Fourier Transform Pairs. Vector Operations.



Appendix B. Coordinate Systems.

The Rectangular Coordinate System. The Cylindrical Coordinate System. The Spherical Coordinate System.



Appendix C. Typical Permittivity of Common Materials.


Appendix D. Typical Permeability of Common Materials.


Appendix E. Typical Conductivity of Common Materials.


Appendix F. Approximate Indices of Refraction at Optic Frequencies.


Appendix G. Typical Optical Fiber Cable Attenuation.


Appendix H. Electromagnetic Frequency Spectrum.


Appendix I. Several Semiconductor Material Wavelengths.


Appendix J. Useful Constants.


Appendix K. Radiometric and Photometric Fields.


Appendix L. The Smith Chart.


Bibliography.


Index.

Preface

Preface

Most educators are aware of the recent advances in photonics and optical communication. It is becoming more apparent that optical techniques are taking an imposing place in the technological world. It is nearly impossible to do any business transactions in the world without using optical technologies. The National Science Foundation has recommended and is funding more optics research and education. Various sources recommend that some optics education be introduced into the undergraduate curriculum of our colleges and universities.

Employment opportunities for technical people are increasing, according to the Journal of Engineering Education. Optics is playing an increasing role in wide-ranging applications. This trend is most evident in communications technologies. The introduction of lasers has largely contributed to this explosion. Along with lasers, optical fibers have revolutionized communications engineering. Communication through optical fiber technology has become a major player in the arena of communication. High-capacity and wide-bandwidth fiber links are plentiful on land and underwater. The basic operation in optical communication of source—optical fiber—photodetector, has now grown to include passive and active optical devices that do routing, switching, and signal restoration. Can anyone grasp the phenomenal growth in global telecommunications? When will the exponential increase in optical fiber networks level off, if ever? Imagine. Almost every time we use a telephone, email a friend, use an ATM, send a fax, or watch TV, we are using an optical fiber technology. Of course, there is communications by satellite and that is not to say satellite communication is unnecessary. Both are beneficial technologies. The two major advantages of fiber optics over satellites are capacity and speed. Fiber optic cables carry more information faster than do satellites. On the other hand, satellites can reach where fibers cannot. Both are needed. Fiber optics is in greater demand and the demand is growing faster than the demand for satellite systems. Optical technology is here and appears to have a promising future. According to the June 1999 issue of Lightwave (p. 114), the 1998 telecommunications market generated $467.2 billion and was growing at a rate of 11% per year. Shouldn't the academic community be part of this explosion? Shouldn't the engineers, physicists, and technologists join the swell? It seems clear that more engineers and physicists will be needed in the development of optical systems. More technical people with a basic understanding of optics are a necessity. It appears that the time has come to introduce undergraduate engineers to basic engineering optics.

At John Brown University we have introduced into the curriculum a junior/senior level engineering (elective) optics course for both electrical and mechanical engineering. It consists of two lectures and one lab period per week. A corequisite for the course is Engineering Field Theory. This seems to be a good starting point for adding optics to an already crowded university curriculum. The course is a balance between all lecture and all labs. An all-lecture type offering would give the student no hands-on experience, while an all-labs course would give the student no theoretical basis.

This book introduces undergraduate engineering and physics students to the basic concepts in optical engineering. It also provides a stepping-stone for students interested in advancing to higher programs in optics. The typical university calculus, chemistry, and physics background is assumed. In addition, some introductory engineering field theory would be helpful. The book can help the practicing engineer who (1) has zero training in optical engineering and (2) has no opportunity to return to the formal engineering classroom. This book can be used as a self-study course if the student has access to an optics lab.

Chapter 1 introduces the field of engineering optics and gives an overview of the text. Chapter 2 covers the electric field for the nontime-varying case. This case includes electric flux density, potential, semiconductors, dielectrics, conductors, and passive components. Maxwell's equations are introduced. Chapter 3 covers the magnetic field for the nontime- varying case. This case includes magnetic flux density, potential, self- and mutual inductance, and Maxwell's equations. Chapter 4 covers the electromagnetic field. Time-varying fields are introduced. We show that electric and magnetic fields are not independent for the time-varying case; they are codependent. Maxwell's equations are applied for the time-varying case as well as for the phasor domain. Chapter 5 introduces transmission lines and waveguides: the channels that propagate energy from one point to another. Chapter 6 discusses the nature of light. Light is considered as moving in waves or rays. As a wave, light can bend as it propagates. As a ray, it moves—like a particle—in a straight line. Chapter 7 discusses devices. These devices include lasers, mirrors, prisms, filters, and beamsplitters, to name a few. Chapter 8 discusses components such as LEDs, detectors, diodes, and so forth. Chapter 9 introduces fiber construction and characteristics. Step-index and graded-index fibers are included as single and multimode fibers. Chapter 10 features communication and signal processing. Included are discussions of modulation and demodulation systems. Chapter 11 is the capstone chapter of the text. It includes 15 applications or laboratory experiences, starting with the He-Ne laser and ending with a linear displacement transducer.

Additional information is in the appendices. Contained are some math operations as well as basic coordinate systems. Also listed are typical material values for permittivity, permeability, conductivity, refractive index, attenuation, frequency spectra, semiconductor wavelengths, some useful constants, and an analogy between radiometric and photometric fields. The last appendix is a brief introduction to the Smith chart.

It is hoped that this text meets some of the needs of a technical society that is showing an increasing utilization of optical technologies.

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