Sam Phippen has been writing software for more than seven years. Sam has spent the last four years building Ruby and Ruby on Rails applications. He routinely gives conference talks about software design and testing and currently serves the Ruby community as a member of the RSpec core team. Sam regularly contributes to Open Source Ruby applications and works as a consultant at Fun and Plausible Solutions. Mostly, Sam helps his clients with software design and improving the quality of the applications that they are building. He loves refactoring sticky rails applications and uses a number of principles of object oriented design to ensure that the software he works on will be maintainable far into the future.