James Shapiro, Professor of Microbiology at the University of Chicago, has a BA in English Literature from Harvard and a PhD in Genetics from Cambridge. Following a teaching stint at the University of Havana and research at Brandeis, Shapiro joined the University of Chicago faculty in 1973. He has also held visiting professor appointments at the Institut Pasteur, Tel Aviv University, Cambridge University, and the University of Edinburgh, where he was the Darwin Prize Visiting Professor in 1993. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology, the AAAS, and the Linnean Society of London. In 2001, he received an honorary O.B.E. from Queen Elizabeth for services to higher education in the UK and US.