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1.8. Summary

In this chapter, you have learned that the three principal types of diagrams used to describe the flow of chemical streams through a process are the block flow diagram (BFD), the process flow diagram (PFD), and the piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID). These diagrams describe a process in increasing detail.

Each diagram serves a different purpose. The block flow diagram is useful in conceptualizing a process or a number of processes in a large complex. Little stream information is given, but a clear overview of the process is presented. The process flow diagram contains all the necessary information to complete material and energy balances on the process. In addition, important information such as stream pressures, equipment sizes, and major control loops is included. Finally, the piping and instrumentation diagram contains all the process information necessary for the construction of the plant. These data include pipe sizes and the location of all instrumentation for both the process and utility streams.

In addition to the three diagrams, there are a number of other diagrams used in the construction and engineering phase of a project. However, these diagrams contain little additional information about the process.

The logic for equipment placement and layout within the process was presented. The reasons for elevating equipment and providing access were discussed, and a 3-D representation of a DME plant was presented. The concept of operator training simulators is presented and the role of 3-D immersive training systems is also introduced.

The PFD is the single most important diagram for the chemical or process engineer and will form the basis of much of the discussion covered in this book.

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