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Upgrading and Repairing PCs, 15th Edition

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Upgrading and Repairing PCs, 15th Edition

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Description

  • Copyright 2004
  • Pages: 1608
  • Edition: 15th
  • eBook (Adobe DRM)
  • ISBN-10: 0-7686-6442-X
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-7686-6442-3

This is the eBook of the printed book and may not include any media, website access codes, or print supplements that may come packaged with the bound book.

 

Runaway best-selling PC hardware book of all time and one of the best-selling computer books ever!

 

•Written by the all-time bestselling PC hardware author in history!

•Has earned more than any other Que book in existence in gross profit since the 5th Edition was published in 1995, placing it among the Pearson Technology Group elite!

Sample Content

Table of Contents



Introduction.


1. Development of the PC.

Computer History-Before Personal Computers.

Timeline. Mechanical Calculators. The First Mechanical Computer. Electronic Computers.

Modern Computers.

From Tubes to Transistors. Integrated Circuits. The First Microprocessor.

History of the PC.

Birth of the Personal Computer. The IBM Personal Computer. The PC Industry More Than 20 Years Later.



2. PC Components, Features, and System Design.

What Is a PC?

Who Controls PC Software? Who Controls PC Hardware? PC Design Guides.

System Types. System Components.



3. Microprocessor Types and Specifications.

Pre-PC Microprocessor History. Microprocessors from 1971 to the Present. Processor Specifications.

Data I/O Bus. Address Bus. Internal Registers (Internal Data Bus). Processor Modes. Processor Speed Ratings. Processor Speeds and Markings Versus Motherboard Speed. Cyrix Processor Speeds. AMD Processor Speeds. Overclocking. Cache Memory. How Cache Works. Level 2 Cache.

Processor Features.

SMM (Power Management). Superscalar Execution. MMX Technology. SSE and SSE2. 3DNow!, Enhanced 3DNow!, and Professional 3DNow! Dynamic Execution. Dual Independent Bus Architecture. Hyper-Threading Technology.

Processor Manufacturing.

Processor Remarking. PGA Chip Packaging. Single Edge Contact and Single Edge Processor Packaging.

Processor Socket and Slot Types.

Zero Insertion Force. Socket 1. Socket 2. Socket 3. Socket 4. Socket 5. Socket 6. Socket 7 (and Super7). Socket 8. Socket 370 (PGA-370). Socket 423. Socket 478. Socket A (Socket 462). Socket 603. Socket 754. Processor Slots.

CPU Operating Voltages. Heat and Cooling Problems.

Heatsinks. Active Heatsinks. Installing a Heatsink.

Math Coprocessors (Floating-Point Units). Processor Bugs. Processor Update Feature. Processor Codenames. Intel-Compatible Processors (AMD and Cyrix).

AMD Processors. Cyrix.

P1 (086) First-Generation Processors.

8088 and 8086 Processors. 80186 and 80188 Processors. 8087 Coprocessor.

P2 (286) Second-Generation Processors.

286 Processors. 80287 Coprocessor.

P3 (386) Third-Generation Processors.

386 Processors. 386DX Processors. 386SX Processors. 386SL Processors. 80387 Coprocessor.

P4 (486) Fourth-Generation Processors.

486 Processors. 486DX Processors. 486SL. 486SX. 487SX. DX2/OverDrive and DX4 Processors. Pentium OverDrive for 486SX2 and DX2 Systems. AMD 486 (5x86). Cyrix/TI 486.

P5 (586) Fifth-Generation Processors.

Pentium Processors. First-Generation Pentium Processor. Second-Generation Pentium Processor. Pentium-MMX Processors. Pentium Defects. Testing for the FPU Bug. Power Management Bugs. Pentium Processor Models and Steppings. AMD-K5.

Intel P6 (686) Sixth-Generation Processors.

Dynamic Execution. Dual Independent Bus. Other Sixth-Generation Improvements. Pentium Pro Processors. Pentium II Processors. Celeron. Pentium III. Pentium II/III Xeon.

Other Sixth-Generation Processors.

NexGen Nx586. AMD-K6 Series. AMD Athlon, Duron, and Athlon XP. AMD Duron. AMD Athlon XP. Athlon MP. Cyrix/IBM 6x86 (M1) and 6x86MX (MII). VIA C3.

Intel Pentium 4 (Seventh-Generation) Processors.

Memory Requirements. Power Supply Issues.

Eighth-Generation (64-Bit Register) Processors.

Intel Itanium and Itanium 2. AMD Athlon 64. AMD Opteron.

Processor Upgrades.

OverDrive Processors. Processor Benchmarks.

Processor Troubleshooting Techniques.



4. Motherboards and Buses.

Motherboard Form Factors.

PC and XT. Full-Size AT. Baby-AT. LPX. ATX. Micro-ATX. Flex-ATX. ITX and Mini-ITX. NLX. WTX. Proprietary Designs. Backplane Systems.

Motherboard Components. Processor Sockets/Slots. Chipsets.

Chipset Evolution. Intel Chipsets. AMD Athlon/Duron Chipsets. North/South Bridge Architecture. Hub Architecture. Intel's Early 386/486 Chipsets.

Fifth-Generation (P5 Pentium Class) Chipsets.

Intel 430LX (Mercury). Intel 430NX (Neptune). Intel 430FX (Triton). Intel 430HX (Triton II). Intel 430VX (Triton III). Intel 430TX. Third-Party (Non-Intel) P5 Pentium Class Chipsets.

Sixth-Generation (P6 Pentium Pro/II/III Class) Chipsets.

Intel 450KX/GX (Orion Workstation/Server). Intel 440FX (Natoma). Intel 440LX. Intel 440EX. Intel 440BX. Intel 440ZX and 440ZX-66. Intel 440GX. Intel 450NX. Intel 810, 810E, and 810E2. Intel 815 Family. Intel 820 and 820E. Intel 840. Third-Party (Non-Intel) P6-Class Chipsets.

Seventh-Generation (Pentium 4) Chipsets.

Intel 850 Family. Intel 845 Family. Intel 865 Family. Intel 875P.

Third-Party Pentium 4 Chipsets.

High-Speed North-South Bridge Connections. SiS Chipsets for Pentium 4. ALi Corporation Chipsets for Pentium 4. ATI Chipsets for Pentium 4. VIA Chipsets for Pentium 4.

Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP Chipsets.

AMD Chipsets for Athlon/Duron Processors. VIA Chipsets for Athlon, Duron, and Athlon XP. ProSavage PM133. Silicon Integrated Systems Chipsets for AMD Athlon/Duron Processors. ALiMagik1 for AMD Athlon/Duron Systems. NVIDIA nForce Chipsets for Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP. ATI Radeon IGP Chipsets for Athlon/Duron/Athlon XP.

Intel Workstation Chipsets for Pentium 4 and Xeon.

Intel 860. Intel E7205. Intel E7505.

Chipsets for Athlon 64. Super I/O Chips.

Motherboard CMOS RAM Addresses.

Motherboard Interface Connectors. System Bus Types, Functions, and Features.

The Processor Bus (Front-Side Bus). The Memory Bus. The Need for Expansion Slots.

Types of I/O Buses.

The ISA Bus. The Micro Channel Bus. The EISA Bus. Local Buses. VESA Local Bus. The PCI Bus. PCI Express. Accelerated Graphics Port.

System Resources.

Interrupts. DMA Channels. I/O Port Addresses.

Resolving Resource Conflicts.

Resolving Conflicts Manually. Using a System-Configuration Template. Heading Off Problems: Special Boards. Plug-and-Play Systems.

Motherboard Selection Criteria (Knowing What to Look For).

Documentation. Using Correct Speed-Rated Parts.



5. BIOS.

BIOS Basics. BIOS Hardware/Software. Motherboard BIOS.

ROM Hardware. ROM Shadowing. ROM Chip Types. ROM BIOS Manufacturers.

Upgrading the BIOS.

Where to Get Your BIOS Update. Determining Your BIOS Version. Backing Up Your BIOS's CMOS. Settings. Motherboard CMOS RAM Addresses. Replacing a BIOS ROM. Year 2000 BIOS Issues.

CMOS Setting Specifications.

Running or Accessing the CMOS Setup Program. BIOS Setup Menus. Maintenance Menu. Main Menu. Advanced Menu. Security Menu. Power Menu. Boot Menu (Boot Sequence, Order). Exit Menu. Additional BIOS Setup Features.

Plug and Play BIOS.

PnP Device IDs. ACPI. Initializing a PnP Device.

BIOS Error Messages.

General BIOS Boot Text Error Messages. ROM BIOS Messages Indicating Boot Failure (No Valid MBR Found).



6. Memory.

Memory Basics.

ROM. DRAM. Cache Memory: SRAM.

RAM Types.

Fast Page Mode DRAM. Extended Data Out RAM. SDRAM. DDR SDRAM. DDR2 SDRAM. RDRAM.

Memory Modules.

SIMMs, DIMMs, and RIMMs. SIMM Pinouts. DIMM Pinouts. DDR DIMM Pinouts. DDR2 DIMM Pinouts. RIMM Pinouts. Physical RAM Capacity and Organization. Memory Banks. Memory Module Speed. Gold Versus Tin. Parity and ECC.

Installing RAM Upgrades.

Upgrade Options and Strategies. Selecting and Installing Memory.

Troubleshooting Memory.

Memory Defect Isolation Procedures.

The System Logical Memory Layout.

Conventional (Base) Memory. Upper Memory Area. Extended Memory. Preventing ROM BIOS Memory Conflicts and Overlap. ROM Shadowing. Total Installed Memory Versus Total Usable Memory. Adapter Memory Configuration and Optimization.



7. The ATA/IDE Interface.

An Overview of the IDE Interface.

Precursors to IDE. IDE Origins. IDE Variations. Origins of ATA.

ATA Standards.

ATA-1 (AT Attachment Interface for Disk Drives). ATA-2 (AT Attachment Interface with Extensions-2). ATA-3 (AT Attachment Interface-3). ATA/ATAPI-4 (AT Attachment with Packet Interface Extension-4). ATA/ATAPI-5 (AT Attachment with Packet Interface-5). ATA/ATAPI-6 (AT Attachment with Packet Interface-6). ATA/ATAPI-7 (AT Attachment with Packet Interface-7).

ATA Features.

ATA I/O Connector. ATA I/O Cable. ATA Signals. Dual-Drive Configurations. ATA Commands.

ATA Upgrades.

Secondary ATA Channel. Drive Capacity Limitations. Faster Data Transfer. DMA Transfer Modes. ATA Packet Interface.

Serial ATA. ATA RAID.



8. The SCSI Interface.

Small Computer System Interface. ANSI SCSI Standards. SCSI-1. SCSI-2. SCSI-3.

SPI or Ultra SCSI. SPI-2 or Ultra2 SCSI. SPI-3 or Ultra3 SCSI (Ultra160). SPI-4 or Ultra4 SCSI (Ultra320). SPI-5 or Ultra5 SCSI (Ultra640). RAID Arrays. Fibre Channel SCSI. iSCSI.

SCSI Cables and Connectors. SCSI Cable and Connector Pinouts.

Single-Ended SCSI Cables and Connectors. High Voltage Differential SCSI Signals. Expanders. Termination.

SCSI Drive Configuration.

Start on Command (Delayed Start). SCSI Parity. Terminator Power. SCSI Synchronous Negotiation.

Plug and Play SCSI. SCSI Configuration Troubleshooting. SCSI Versus ATA (IDE).

SCSI Hard Disk Evolution and Construction. Performance. SCSI Versus ATA: Advantages and Limitations. Recommended SCSI Host Adapters, Cables, and Terminators.



9. Magnetic Storage Principles.

Magnetic Storage. History of Magnetic Storage. How Magnetic Fields Are Used to Store Data. Read/Write Head Designs.

Ferrite. Metal-In-Gap. Thin Film. Magneto-Resistive Heads. Giant Magneto-Resistive Heads. Perpendicular.

Head Sliders. Data Encoding Schemes.

FM Encoding. MFM Encoding. RLL Encoding.

Encoding Scheme Comparisons. Partial-Response, Maximum-Likelihood Decoders. Capacity Measurements. Areal Density.

Increasing Areal Density with Pixie Dust.



10. Hard Disk Storage.

Definition of a Hard Disk. Hard Drive Advancements. Hard Disk Drive Operation.

The Ultimate Hard Disk Drive Analogy. Tracks and Sectors. Disk Formatting.

Basic Hard Disk Drive Components.

Hard Disk Platters (Disks). Recording Media. Read/Write Heads. Head Actuator Mechanisms. Air Filters. Hard Disk Temperature Acclimation. Spindle Motors. Logic Boards. Cables and Connectors. Configuration Items. The Faceplate or Bezel.

Hard Disk Features.

Capacity. Performance. Reliability. Cost.



11. Floppy Disk Storage.

History of the Floppy. Floppy Drive Interfaces. Drive Components.

Read/Write Heads. The Head Actuator. The Spindle Motor. Circuit Boards. The Controller. The Faceplate. Connectors. The Floppy Disk Controller Cable.

Disk Physical Specifications and Operation.

How the Operating System Uses a Disk. Cylinders. Clusters or Allocation Units. Disk Change.

Types of Floppy Disk Drives.

1.44MB 3 1/2'' Drives. Other Floppy Drive Types.

Analyzing 3 1/2'' Floppy Disk Construction.

Floppy Disk Media Types and Specifications. Caring for and Handling Floppy Disks and Drives. Airport X-Ray Machines and Metal Detectors.

Drive Installation Procedures. Troubleshooting Floppy Drives.



12. High-Capacity Removable Storage.

The Role of Removable-Media Drives.

Extra Storage. Backing Up Your Data.

Comparing Disk, Tape, and Flash Memory Technologies.

Magnetic Disk Media. Magnetic Tape Media. Flash Memory Media.

Interfaces for Removable Media Drives. Overview of Removable Magnetic Storage Devices.

Iomega Zip. SuperDisk LS-120 and LS-240.

Hard-Disk-Size Removable-Media Drives. "Orphan" Removable-Media Drives. Magneto-Optical Drives.

Magneto-Optical Technology. Comparing MO to "Pure" Magnetic Media. Key Factors in Selecting a Removable. Drive.

Flash Memory Devices.

How Flash Memory Works. Types of Flash Memory Devices. Moving Data in Flash Memory Devices to Your Computer.

Microdrive Technology. Tape Drives.

Hard-Disk-Based Alternatives to Tape Backup. Disadvantages of Tape Backup Drives. Advantages to Tape Backup Drives. Common Tape Backup Standards. Comparing Tape Backup Technologies. Choosing a Tape Backup Drive. Tape Drive Installation. Tape Drive Backup Software.Tape Drive Troubleshooting. Tape Retensioning.



13. Optical Storage.

Optical Technology. CD-Based Optical Technology.

CDs: A Brief History. CD-ROM Construction and Technology. Caring for Optical Media.

DVD.

DVD History. DVD Construction and Technology. DVD Tracks and Sectors. Handling Errors. DVD Capacity (Sides and Layers). Data Encoding on the Disc.

Blu-ray Disc. Optical Disc Formats.

Compact Disc and Drive Formats. CD-ROM File Systems. DVD Formats and Standards. DVD Copy Protection.

CD/DVD Read-Only Drives and Specifications.

Performance Specifications. Interface. Loading Mechanism. Other Drive Features.

Writable CDs.

CD-R. CD-RW. MultiRead Specifications. How to Reliably Record CDs. Recording Software. Creating Music CDs.

Recordable DVD Standards.

DVD-RAM. DVD-R. DVD-RW. DVD+RW. Multiformat Rewritable Drives.

CD/DVD Drive and Software Installation and Support. Booting from a Floppy Disk with CD/DVD Drive Support.

Bootable CDs and DVDs-El Torito. Removable Drive Letter Assignments. Creating a Rescue CD. Making a Bootable CD/DVD for Emergencies.

Troubleshooting Optical Drives.

Failure Reading a CD/DVD. Failure to Read CD-R, CD-RW Discs in CD-ROM or DVD Drive. Failure to Read a Rewritable DVD in DVD-ROM Drive or Player. Failure to Create a Writable DVD. Failure Writing to CD-RW or DVD-RW 1x Media. ATAPI CD-ROM or DVD Drive Runs Slowly. Poor Results or Slow Performance When Writing to CD-R Media. Trouble Reading CD-RW Discs on CD-ROM. Trouble Reading CD-R Discs on DVD Drive. Trouble Making Bootable CDs. Updating the Firmware in a CD-RW or Rewritable DVD Drive.



14. Physical Drive Installation and Configuration.

Installing All Types of Drives. Hard Disk Installation Procedures.

Drive Configuration. Host Adapter Configuration. Physical Installation. System Configuration.

Formatting.

Low-Level Formatting. Drive Partitioning. High-Level (Operating System) Formatting. FDISK and FORMAT Limitations.

Replacing an Existing Drive.

Drive Migration for MS-DOS Users. Drive Migration for Windows 9x/Me Users. Interfacing to Disk Drives.

Hard Disk Drive Troubleshooting and Repair.

Testing a Drive.

Installing an Optical Drive.

Avoiding Conflict: Get Your Cards in Order. Drive Configuration. External (SCSI) Drive Hookup. Internal Drive Installation. Ribbon Cable and Card Edge Connector. SCSI Chains: Internal, External, or Both.

Floppy Drive Installation Procedures.



15. Video Hardware.

Video Display Technologies.

How CRT Display Technology Works. DVI-Digital Signals for CRT Monitors. LCD Panels. Video Adapter Types.

Monitor Selection Criteria.

The Right Size. Resolution. Dot Pitch (CRTs). Image Brightness and Contrast (LCD Panels). Interlaced Versus Noninterlaced. Energy and Safety. Frequencies. Controls. Environment. Testing a Display.

Maintaining Your Monitor. Video Display Adapters.

Obsolete Display Adapters. Current Display Adapters. Super VGA. VESA SVGA Standards. Integrated Video/Motherboard Chipsets. Video Adapter Components. Identifying the Video and System Chipsets. Video RAM. The Digital-to-Analog Converter. The Bus. The Video Driver. Multiple Monitors.

3D Graphics Accelerators.

How 3D Accelerators Work. Common 3D Techniques. Advanced 3D Techniques. Application Programming Interfaces. 3D Chipsets.

Upgrading or Replacing Your Video Card.

TV Tuner and Video Capture Upgrades. Warranty and Support. Comparing Video Cards with the Same Chipset.

Video Cards for Multimedia.

Video Feature Connectors. Video Output Devices. Video Capture Devices. Desktop Video Boards.

Adapter and Display Troubleshooting.

Troubleshooting Monitors. Troubleshooting Video Cards and Drivers.



16. Audio Hardware.

Early PC Audio Adapters.

Limitations of Sound Blaster Pro Compatibility. DirectX and Audio Adapters.

PC Multimedia History.

Suggested Multimedia Minimums.

Audio Adapter Features.

Basic Connectors. Connectors for Advanced Features. Volume Control. MIDI Support Features. Data Compression. Multipurpose Digital Signal Processors. Sound Drivers.

Choosing the Best Audio Adapter for Your Needs.

Gaming. DVD Movies on Your Desktop. Voice Dictation and Control. Sound Producers.

Playing and Creating Digitized Sound Files. Audio Adapter Concepts and Terms.

The Nature of Sound. Evaluating the Quality of Your Audio Adapter. Sampling.

Who's Who in Audio.

Chipset Makers Who Make Their Own Audio Adapters. Major Sound Chip Makers. Motherboard Chipsets with Integrated Audio. AOpen TubeSound.

3D Audio.

Positional Audio. 3D Audio Processing. DirectX Support Issues. Installing the Sound Card. Connecting PC Speakers and Completing the Installation. Using Your Stereo Instead of Speakers.

Troubleshooting Sound Card Problems.

Hardware (Resource) Conflicts. Other Sound Card Problems.

Speakers.

Theater and Surround Sound Considerations.

Microphones.



17. I/O Interfaces from Serial and Parallel to IEEE-1394 and USB.

Introduction to Input/Output Ports. USB and IEEE-1394 (i.Link or FireWire).

Why Serial?. Universal Serial Bus. USB Connectors. IEEE-1394. Comparing IEEE-1394 and USB.

Standard Serial and Parallel Ports. Serial Ports.

Typical Locations for Serial Ports. UARTs. High-Speed Serial Port Cards. Onboard Serial Ports. Serial Port Configuration. Testing Serial Ports.

Parallel Ports.

IEEE-1284 Parallel Port Standard. Upgrading to EPP/ECP Parallel Ports. Parallel Port Configuration. Linking Systems with Serial or Parallel Ports. Parallel-to-SCSI Converters. Testing Parallel Ports.



18. Input Devices.

Keyboards.

Enhanced 101-Key (or 102-Key) Keyboard. 104-Key (Windows 9x/Me/2000/XP) Keyboard. USB Keyboards. Notebook Computer Keyboards. Num Lock.

Keyboard Technology.

Keyswitch Design. The Keyboard Interface. Typematic Functions. Keyboard Key Numbers and Scan Codes. International Keyboard Layouts. Keyboard/Mouse Interface Connectors. Keyboards with Special Features.

Keyboard Troubleshooting and Repair.

Keyboard Disassembly. Cleaning a Keyboard.

Keyboard Recommendations. Pointing Devices.

Ball-Type Mice. Optical Mice. Pointing Device Interface Types. Mouse Troubleshooting. Scroll Wheels. TrackPoint II/III/IV. Mouse and Pointing Stick Alternatives. Trackballs. 3M's Ergonomic Mouse.

Input Devices for Gaming.

Analog Joysticks and the Game Port. USB Ports for Gaming. Compatibility Concerns. Programmable Game Controllers. Choosing the Best Game Controller.

Wireless Input Devices.

How Wireless Input Devices Work. Wireless Pointing Device Issues. Troubleshooting Wireless Input Devices.



19. Internet Connectivity.

Relating Internet and LAN Connectivity.

Comparing Broadband and Analog Modem Internet Access. Broadband Internet Access Types. High Speed = Less Freedom.

Cable Modems and CATV Networks.

Connecting to the Internet with a "Cable Modem". The Cable Modem and the CATV Network. CATV Bandwidth. CATV Performance. CATV Internet Connection Security.

Digital Subscriber Line.

How DSL Works. Who Can Use DSL-and Who Can't. Major Types of DSL. DSL Pricing. DSL Security Issues. Technical Problems with DSL.

Fixed-Base Wireless Broadband. Internet Connectivity via Satellite with DirecWAY or StarBand.

DirecWAY. StarBand.

Integrated Services Digital Network.

How Standard ISDN Works. Acquiring ISDN Service. ISDN Hardware.

Comparing High-Speed Internet Access.

Having a Backup Plan in Case of Service Interruptions.

Leased Lines.

T-1 and T-3 Connections. Comparing Conventional High-Speed Services.

Securing Your Internet Connection. Asynchronous (Analog) Modems. Modem Standards.

Bits and Baud Rates. Modulation Standards. Error-Correction Protocols. Data-Compression Standards. Proprietary Standards. 56Kbps Modems. 56Kbps Limitations. Early 56Kbps Standards. Fax Modem Standards. Analog Modem Recommendations.

Sharing Your Internet Connection.

Comparing Gateways, Proxy Servers, and Routers. Microsoft Internet Connection Sharing. Routers for Internet Sharing.

Internet Troubleshooting.

Diagnosing Problems with a Shared Internet Connection. Diagnosing Connection Problems with Signal Lights. Analog Modem Fails to Dial. Computer Locks Up After Installing or Using Internal Modem, Terminal Adapter, or Network Card. Computer Can't Detect External Modem. Using Your Modem Sound to Diagnose Your Modem.



20. Local Area Networking.

Focus of This Chapter. Defining a Network.

Types of Networks. Requirements for a Network.

Client/Server Versus Peer Networks.

Client/Server Networks. Peer-to-Peer Network. Comparing Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networks.

Network Protocols Overview.

Ethernet.

Hardware Elements of Your Network.

Network Interface Cards. Network Cables. Network Topologies. Hubs and Switches for Ethernet Networks.

Network Cable Installations.

Selecting the Proper Cable. Building Your Own Twisted-Pair. Cables.

Wireless Network Standards.

Wi-Fi-A Standard Upon a Standard. 802.11 Network Hardware. Bluetooth. Wireless Network Logical Topologies.

Network Protocols.

IP and TCP/IP. IPX. NetBEUI.

Other Home Networking Solutions.

HomePNA. Powerline Networking. Home Networking Compared to Ethernet UTP Solutions.

Putting Your Network Together.

Network Adapter. Cables and Connections Between Computers. Hub/Switch/Access Point. Gateways for Non-Ethernet Networks. Recording Information About Your Network. Installing Networking Software.

Tips and Tricks.

Installation. Sharing Resources. Setting Up Security. Sharing Internet Connections.

Direct Cable Connections. Troubleshooting a Network.

Network Software Setup. Networks in Use. TCP/IP.



21. Power Supply and Chassis/Case.

Considering the Importance of the Power Supply. Primary Function and Operation.

Positive DC Voltages. Negative DC Voltages. The Power_Good Signal.

Power Supply Form Factors.

PC/XT Style. AT/Desk Style. AT/Tower Style. Baby-AT Style. LPX Style. ATX Style. NLX Style. SFX Style.

Motherboard Power Connectors.

AT Power Supply Connectors. ATX Main Power Connector. ATX Auxiliary Power Connector. ATX12V Connector. Dell Proprietary (Nonstandard) ATX Design. Power Switch Connectors.

Peripheral Power Connectors.

Peripheral and Floppy Drive Power Connectors. Physical Connector Part Numbers.

Power Supply Specifications.

Power Supply Loading. Power Supply Ratings. Other Power Supply Specifications. Power Factor Correction. Power Supply Safety Certifications.

Power-Use Calculations. Power Cycling. Power Management.

Energy Star Systems. Advanced Power Management. Advanced Configuration and Power Interface.

Power Supply Troubleshooting.

Overloaded Power Supplies. Inadequate Cooling. Using Digital Multimeters. Specialized Test Equipment.

Repairing the Power Supply. Obtaining Replacement Units.

Deciding on a Power Supply. Sources for Replacement Power Supplies.

Chassis/Case.

Custom Cases.

Power-Protection Systems.

Surge Suppressors (Protectors). Phone Line Surge Protectors. Line Conditioners. Backup Power.

RTC/NVRAM (CMOS RAM) Batteries.



22. Building or Upgrading Systems.

System Components.

Case and Power Supply. Processor. Motherboard. Floppy Disk and Removable Drives. Hard Disk Drives. Optical Drives. Input Devices. Video Card and Display. Audio Hardware. Accessories.

Hardware and Software Resources. System Assembly and Disassembly.

Assembly Preparation.

Motherboard Installation.

Installing the CPU and Heatsink. Installing Memory Modules. Mounting the New Motherboard in the Case. Connecting the Power Supply. Connecting I/O and Other Cables to the Motherboard. Installing the Drives. Removing the Existing Video Card (If Present). Installing the New Video Card and Driver Software. Installing Additional Expansion Cards. Replacing the Cover and Connecting External Cables. Running the Motherboard BIOS Setup Program (CMOS Setup).

Troubleshooting New Installations. Installing the Operating System.

Partitioning the Drive with DOS and Windows 9x and Me. Formatting the Drive with DOS and Windows 9x and Me. Preparing the Hard Drive with Windows 2000/XP. Loading the CD-ROM Driver. Installing Important Drivers.

Disassembly/Upgrading Preparation.



23. PC Diagnostics, Testing, and Maintenance.

PC Diagnostics.

Diagnostics Software. The Power On Self Test. Hardware Diagnostics. General-Purpose Diagnostics Programs. Operating System Diagnostics.

The Hardware Boot Process.

The Boot Process: Operating System Independent. The DOS Boot Process. The Windows 9x/Me Boot Process. Windows NT/2000/XP Startup.

PC Maintenance Tools.

Hand Tools. A Word About Hardware. Soldering and Desoldering Tools. Test Equipment. Special Tools for the Enthusiast.

Preventive Maintenance.

Active Preventive Maintenance Procedures. Passive Preventive Maintenance Procedures.

Troubleshooting Tips and Techniques.

Basic Troubleshooting Guidelines. Modern PCs-More Complicated and More Reliable. Industry-Standard Replaceable Components. Reinstall or Replace? Troubleshooting by Replacing Parts. Troubleshooting by the Bootstrap Approach. Problems During the POST. Hardware Problems After Booting. Problems Running Software. Problems with Adapter Cards.

Top Troubleshooting Problems.

When I power the system on, I see the power LED light and hear the fans spin, but nothing else ever happens. The system beeps when I turn it on, but there is nothing on the screen. I see a STOP or STOP ERROR in Windows NT/2000/XP. I see Fatal Exception errors in Windows 95/98/Me. The system won't shut down in Windows. The power button won't turn off the system. The modem doesn't work. The keyboard doesn't work. I can't hear any sound from the speakers. The monitor appears completely garbled or unreadable. The image on the display is distorted (bent), shaking, or wavering. I purchased an upgraded AGP video card, and it won't fit in the slot. I installed an upgraded processor, but it won't work. The system runs fine for a few minutes but then freezes or locks up. I am experiencing intermittent problems with the hard drive(s). The system won't boot up; it says Missing operating system on the screen. The system is experiencing intermittent memory errors. The system locks up frequently and sometimes reboots on its own. I installed a 60GB drive in my system, but it is recognizing only 8.4GB. My CD-ROM/DVD drive doesn't work. My USB port or device doesn't work. I installed an additional memory module, but the system doesn't recognize it. I installed a new drive, but it doesn't work and the drive LED remains lit. While I was updating my BIOS, the system froze and now the system is dead! I installed a new motherboard in an older Dell system, and nothing works. I installed a PCI video card in an older system with PCI slots, and it doesn't work.



24. File Systems and Data Recovery.

File Systems. File Allocation Table.

FAT12. FAT16. FAT32.

NTFS. Disk and File System Structures.

Master Boot Record. Primary and Extended FAT Partitions. Volume Boot Records. Root Directory. File Allocation Tables. Clusters (Allocation Units). The Data Area. Diagnostic Read-and-Write Cylinder.

VFAT and Long Filenames. FAT32.

FAT32 Cluster Sizes. FAT Mirroring. Creating FAT32 Partitions. Converting FAT16 to FAT32.

FAT File System Errors.

Lost Clusters. Cross-Linked Files. Invalid Files or Directories. FAT Errors.

FAT File System Utilities.

The RECOVER Command. SCANDISK. Disk Defragmentation. Third-Party Programs.

New Technology File System.

NTFS Architecture. NTFS 5 (NTFS 2000). NTFS Compatibility. Creating NTFS Drives. NTFS Tools.

High Performance File System. Data Recovery.

The Windows Recycle Bin and File Deletion. Recovering Files That Are Not in the Recycle Bin. Retrieving Data from Partitioned and Formatted Drives. Using the Norton Disk Editor. Data Recovery from Flash Memory Devices.

Common Drive Error Messages and Solutions.

Missing Operating System. NO ROM BASIC - SYSTEM HALTED. Boot Error Press F1 to Retry. Invalid Drive Specification. Invalid Media Type. Hard Disk Controller Failure.

General File System Troubleshooting for MS-DOS, Windows 9x, and Windows Me. General File System Troubleshooting for Windows 2000/XP.



Appendix A: Glossary.


Appendix B: Key Vendor Contact Information.


Appendix C: Troubleshooting Index.


List of Acronyms and Abbreviations.


Index.

Updates

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