This chapter begins with a discussion of packages in general while focusing on the core features of packages and package management systems that cross most GNU/Linux distributions. In this discussion, I explain what packages are and what a package management system does. While I turn to examples from Ubuntu throughout, this discussion focuses on building a strong conceptual grounding. After establishing a solid grounding, I introduce Debian packages—the types of packages that Ubuntu uses—and give a brief view of the very different types of packages: source packages and binary packages. Most of the rest of the chapter focuses on package management in Ubuntu using the command-line tools. While many users of Ubuntu on the desktop are familiar with updating their system, this chapter focuses on the way this is done without a desktop system. It covers the basics and works up to some more advanced uses of a packaging system that many server administrators find useful. Finally, I touch on the process through which advanced users and administrators can create, modify, and redistribute their own packages.
Introduction to Package Management
On Ubuntu—and in other GNU/Linux environments—packages are the primary way that software is built, deployed, and installed. Nearly every major GNU/Linux operating system distributes software, both binary software and source code, in packages. These packages are usually either in the Rpm package format (RPM) or in the Debian package format (DEB) for binary software or in corresponding “source” RPM and DEB formats. With its close relationship to the Debian project as a project that continues to be based on Debian’s work, Ubuntu naturally uses DEB format packages.
Very simply, packages are an alternative to downloading, building, and installing software from scratch. They offer a host of advantages in terms of installation, removal, monitoring, and handling interactions between pieces of software over the standard “build from source” model. Since packaging is not common outside of the GNU/Linux world—or at least not described in the same terms—it is worth going into some background on packaging before I describe how it is done on Ubuntu systems.
Background on Packages
Nearly every GNU/Linux-based operating system—Fedora, RHEL, open-SUSE, Slackware, Debian, and others—includes an almost entirely overlapping core selection of software. By definition, each of these OSes includes Linus Torvald’s Linux kernel and a large chunk of the GNU project’s developer- and user-oriented applications that are necessary to build and use it. Most also include server-oriented software like OpenSSH and Apache, either the XFree86 or X.Org implementation of the X Windowing System, and what is often an extremely expansive collection of both command-line and graphically based applications. Although people often throw the term around, it is important to establish that this collection of software is collectively referred to as a distribution. Ubuntu is a distribution. When people refer to “Linux” as an operating system, they are usually referring to a Linux or GNU/Linux distribution.
The primary goal of all distributions is the automatic installation, configuration, removal, maintenance, and update of software—both through the creation of infrastructure for this purpose and in the creation of modified versions of the preexistent software. The latter customization of existing software in this specialized way is the act of “packaging,” and it constitutes the vast proportion of work done by Ubuntu developers. It constitutes, to a large degree, what Ubuntu is over and above the software that Ubuntu includes. And while packaging is primarily the work of distribution makers like Ubuntu, it can also be done by both the users of distributions, for the clean integration of “unpackaged” pieces of software into their systems, and by software vendors who wish to allow for easier installation and maintenance of software by their users.
What Are Packages?
The creation of a package—on Ubuntu or elsewhere—begins with the software in need of being packaged. In most, but not all, cases, this involves the procurement of source code. In all situations, it involves code from an original source, usually referred to in the distribution world as an “upstream” source. The packager’s first addition to the code here will be the creation of extra metadata, which usually includes
- The name of the software
- The name of the upstream author and the person creating the package
- The license of the software
- The upstream location of the software (or a description of where it was obtained)
- The architecture or architectures on which the software is guaranteed to run
- Information for classifying the software that often has to do with the use of the package, primarily to help people who are browsing for packages
- A description of the software in a computer-parsable format
- Information on the importance or “priority” of the package within the larger Ubuntu system (e.g., essential, optional)
This information will be used by either a packaging system or a series of package selection tools to allow users to search, sort, query, or interact with installed or available software—one of the package system’s jobs. However, while this type of metadata is important in that it allows users to find (and find out about) their software, by far the most important group of metadata added to a package relates to the documentation of the relationship of the software in the package to software in other packages within the distribution. While the syntax and semantics of this vary widely between distributions, they include relationships to
- Other software that the software requires to be built
- Other software that the software requires to be installed or configured
- Other software that the software requires to be run
- Other software with which the software cannot be installed or used simultaneously
- Other software for which the software can be used as a drop-in replacement
- Other software that can enhance or improve the software
Modern package systems record even more information. For example, configuration files, unlike normal files, cannot always be simply replaced with a new version when the software is upgraded. As a result, packaging systems have grown to include several pieces of infrastructure for querying users and for maintaining core configuration information over time and across upgrades of the package that requires changes to configuration files. Finally, a more recently realized goal of packages is to provide a structure around which package metadata—such as descriptions—can be translated to provide users with an interface to software localized to their language, script, and culture. Details on accessing and creating all of this metadata in Ubuntu packages are included in the subsequent sections.
Basic Functions of Package Management
A wide range of functionality can be considered core functions of package management systems. The functions are usually implemented by a low-level tool or suite of tools. This script is dpkg and associated scripts in the case of Ubuntu and Debian. These tools were, until several years ago, the primary way that most users manipulated packages, but with the creation of higher-level package management tools that provide “front ends” to these tools, most users of package-based systems rarely use them, although they are still highly central for developers or system administrators who build their own packages. Broadly and somewhat imprecisely, many of these tools are referred to as APT on Debian and Ubuntu.
The first goal of packaging is automating the compilation of software. DEB-format packages provide two formats: one for source packages and one for binary packages. These source packages are an excellent system for the distribution and compilation of source code. Packages are, in Ubuntu and elsewhere, designed to be built noninteractively and—in the case of official Ubuntu packages—can be built automatically on a range of different architectures by automatic package-building software called “autobuilders.” Packages provide a simple—usually one command—method for building that is consistent across all packages. Issues of build configurations and choices are addressed ahead of time by the packager. The cost is build-time configurability, but the payoffs, as you will see in the rest of the chapter, are huge. Necessary build-time dependencies are declared in the packages so that these can be satisfied automatically. For example, architecture-dependent source packages (i.e., packages that must be rebuilt for each architecture) are uploaded to Ubuntu as source and are, in most cases, automatically built on all architectures supported by Ubuntu without any changes to the source package.
Any number of binary packages can be created from a single source package. The creation of multiple binary packages from a single source package can be useful for large projects that release large or monolithic source packages containing a wide variety of different pieces of software—or even highly related pieces of software and/or documentation that it may be advantageous to split. An example of the former case is the XFree86 windowing system—now replaced by the already modularized X.Org—which was contained in one source package but would create upward of several dozen binary packages. Packaging, in this case, is what allowed users to distribute, install, and remove the Xserver independently from the terminal emulator, xlib library package, or window manager.
As can be inferred from the preceding discussion, a key benefit of packaging systems is that they help automate the installation of software. When a binary package is installed:
- The “contents” of the software can be verified to assure integrity of the package. The origin of the software can be verified using cryptographic authentication.
- The dependencies of the software can be analyzed and the system can be queried on the installation state of the software on which the software being installed depends. If the dependencies are unsatisfied, the user is prompted as to the lack and the nature of the required software, and the installation is aborted.
- The user installing the package can be queried for configuration options at some point during the installation process. Answers to these queries can be saved on the system and then used in the customization of a configuration file for the software being installed.
- The contents of the package are stored on the system.
- Metadata and accounting information of a variety of forms are placed in a per-system database to include both current information on the packages installed and their state of installation (e.g., installed but unconfigured), the list of files and to which package they belong, and other information.
Perhaps the most central element here is the check against dependencies of the package being installed and the list of packages already installed on the system. With information on dependencies, users can, at a glance, determine which software is required to run the software in the package. As a result, people writing software that will ultimately be packaged can easily write for and deploy software built against shared libraries. The success of package systems is one reason for the wide use of dynamically linked shared libraries in the GNU/Linux environment.
When a user wants to remove a piece of software, the packaging system, with its catalog of the files belonging to the package and the actions done during installation, is well suited to help ensure a clean uninstallation as well.
While similar to installation, the automatic upgrade of software is another area where the package system can be employed with similarly useful results: Users of package systems can safely and easily upgrade from one version of a piece of software to another. The upgrade of the software will work almost identically to the installation of the software. In most cases, software is installed on top of the existing package, and files that are no longer provided by the package are removed. Configuration files that were customized by the installation and have not since been changed by the user can be automatically regenerated by the user, or the user can be prompted to view and merge changes.
Dependency information can play an important role in the upgrade of packages involving shared libraries. In the case of ABI changes, a packaging system will alert users that an upgrade of a package cannot be completed without the installation of a new library, and users can also be alerted to other packages that will break in this upload. As a result, users can structure uploads—or the system can structure it for them—so that API and ABI breakage is not unanticipated, and users can ensure that all packages that depend on a single shared library can be upgraded in tandem.
Finally, at any point, users can use the cryptographic signature on a package and the list of hashes (usually MD5 sums) of the files included in that package to verify the integrity of the files on their system against corruption or compromise by an attacker.
Advanced Functions of Package Management Systems
While these features lead to the powerful potential to manage software on a system, packaging systems with only these features—essentially, the state of packaging in the mid-1990s—introduced important limitations. Large-scale API and ABI transitions required downloading many packages and a high degree of coordination by the user. Users were forced to figure out the dependency status of programs during an installation or upgrade and then find, download, and do simultaneous installations of new pieces of software. For complex pieces of software with many dependencies, this process was often exceedingly tedious.
As a result, most system upgrades and ABI/API changes were done with large upgrade scripts between releases of a distribution. Users would be expected to install every package involved in a major transition at once with an upgrade script that would structure the order correctly and handle dependencies appropriately. While these problems are limitations of a limited package management system, they are mostly problems that exist outside of package management systems. Without a package management system, shared libraries that undergo API and ABI changes are either never or rarely approached (with dangerous consistency and security implications to each) or are subject to the same limitations without the warnings that a packaging system provides.
Spurred on by the Debian project’s creation of a program called dselect and its frequently lauded Advanced Package Tools (APT, originally named deity and implemented primarily in a program called apt-get), the last half-decade has seen a major evolution in the scope and success of package managers. Most of these tools are levels of abstraction upon or “front ends” to the lower-level package management tools previously described. Like most other DEB-based distributions, Ubuntu uses apt-get, Aptitude, dselect, and the graphical front end Synaptic.
As the ability to track and catalog dependencies is perhaps the single most important aspect of any package management system, the primary function of these advanced tools has been to add classes of functionality on top of the extant package tools and to operate on packages in a more-than-one-at-a-time manner. Each of these tools contains additional databases that describe not only the packages installed but also the packages that are available as candidates for installation through package archives stored locally, on CD, or (in almost all situations today) over a network.
These systems can automatically sort out dependencies and orders, download packages (including dependencies), install the dependencies first, and then install and configure the package in question using the lower-level tools detailed in the previous section.
Similarly, the same advanced tools can be used to uninstall packages. If, for example, a user wants to uninstall a shared library, he or she is prompted with a screen that describes the consequences as a list of packages that must be uninstalled because their dependencies will no longer exist on the system after the uninstallation. Upgrades that involve changing dependencies (e.g., replaced packages) can also be handled through this system.
The real possibilities of such systems are visible when the dependency aspects of a package change over time or when multiple packages can act as drop-in replacements. A package that requires the ability to send mail can depend only on a virtual package “provided” by other packages. New versions of packages can conflict with and declare that they “replace” other packages or provide the functionality of the original package. If, for example, multiple packages are merged into a single package that obsoletes the three other packages, an advanced package system should be able to track the changing dependency information and make the correct decision during upgrade. Along these lines, most advanced package management tools give users the ability to do strategic “smart upgrades” of every package on the system to the newest version of the packages available using the data declared in the package dependencies.
Even more exciting for some users, it is possible to track an in-development version of a GNU/Linux operating system and upgrade every day to the latest version of everything. The package manager can figure out safe upgrade paths and take it from there. During these upgrades, ABI and API version changes can also be automatically handled because the system will refuse to do a full upgrade of a library until all of the packages installed on the system that depend on the package with the shared library can be upgraded at once. The system will not need to keep or track multiple versions of a shared library over time.