Using Ubuntu on the Desktop
- Taking Your Desktop for a Ride
- Using Your Applications
- The Ubuntu File Chooser and Bookmarks
- Ubuntu in Your Language
- Customizing Ubuntu's Look and Feel
- Managing Your Files
- Ubuntu and Multimedia
- Moving to the Next Ubuntu Release
With ubuntu installed and ready to go, it's time to get started using your new desktop. The stock install of Ubuntu provides a very complete and flexible system. Unlike other operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows or Mac OS X, Ubuntu includes everything you need to get started: an office suite, media tools, a Web browser, an e-mail client, and more. Once the installation is complete, you are up and running right away without having to install any additional software. Different people use their computers in different ways, and every user has her own personal preference for look and feel. Recognizing this desire, Linux has the capability to use any one of a number of different graphical interfaces. This flexibility, combined with the ballooning popularity of Linux and open source, has resulted in literally hundreds of different graphical environments springing up, each covering these different types of users and ways of working.
Even though there is a huge range of different environments available, there are two clear leaders in KDE and GNOME. Each environment provides a good-looking, comprehensive, and easy-to-use desktop, but they differ in how that desktop is used as well as in how further personalization can take place. The KDE system aims for complete control and configurability of the desktop. Any desktop configuration options that exist are available to the user, who has easy access and can change the behavior and look of almost everything. The competing GNOME desktop takes inspiration from both Windows and Mac OS X and sets a priority on simplicity and ease of use. GNOME is also easy to customize, but the less common options are either eliminated or well hidden to prevent user overload. Luckily, Ubuntu users are blessed with the choice of either desktop, along with several others, some of which are mentioned in Chapter 10. The default desktop in Kubuntu is KDE. Kubuntu is covered in Chapter 8. Ubuntu used to use GNOME as its default desktop. Even though it is no longer the default, the new GNOME3 is an option and is covered in Chapter 9.
In this chapter, we help you get started with Unity, the default desktop for Ubuntu, and show how you can use it to do the normal things you face every day with your computer and a few not-so-normal things. This includes opening and running applications, managing your files, adjusting the look and feel, using applications, managing your media, and more. Buckle up and get ready to take your shiny new desktop for a drive!
Taking Your Desktop for a Ride
When you start your Ubuntu system, you are presented with a list of users. Once you select your username from the list by clicking it, you are asked for a password to log in with. In the last chapter, you specified a user account when installing the system, so use that to log in. First select your username and press Enter, then your password and press Enter. Your password will appear as a series of *s. This is a security feature.
After a few seconds you will see the Ubuntu desktop appear. If you have a video card that is able to handle Unity, your desktop will look like Figure 3-1.
Figure 3-1 Ubuntu Unity
If your computer cannot run Unity, or if you choose Ubuntu Classic Desktop from the menu at the bottom of the login screen after clicking your username and before entering your password, instead of the default Ubuntu Desktop Edition, your desktop will look and behave as in previous Ubuntu releases (Figure 3-2).
Figure 3-2 The Ubuntu Classic Desktop
Ubuntu Classic Desktop
This chapter will focus on the Unity desktop after the following short description of the Ubuntu Classic Desktop. Much of what is said under the Unity sections will apply to both, but screenshots and general descriptions will be derived from the default Unity desktop.
- At the top of the screen is the panel. This bar contains the desktop menu options and application shortcut icons on the left side in a menu accessed using the Ubuntu logo as well as the notification area on the right side. You use this bar to load applications and to see the status of certain activities on your system. The panel is always visible when you use your desktop.
- The large middle part of the screen, located under the panel, is the desktop. This part of the screen is normally covered by the applications that you use, but you can also put icons and shortcuts on the desktop, too.
- The bottom part of the screen is called the taskbar. This area displays a rectangle for each open application, just like in Windows.
Starting applications is simple. Just click on the Applications menu on the left side of the panel, denoted by an Ubuntu logo. Inside this menu are a number of submenus for different types of applications. Hover your mouse over each category, and then click the application you want to load. As an example, click on Ubuntu Logo > Games > Mahjongg.
Unity Starts Here
You may have noticed that, unlike other operating systems, there are no icons on either the Unity or Classic desktop. The reason for this is that desktop icons typically get covered by applications, and, as such, you can't get at them.
Starting Applications and Finding Things
To start an application in Unity, click the Applications logo in the Launcher at the left side of the desktop (Figure 3-3).
Figure 3-3 The Unity Launcher
When applications are loaded, the window border has three buttons on the top on the left-hand side:
- Left button (red button with a black X): This button closes the application.
- Middle button (white button with a gray –): This minimizes the application, taking it off of your screen, and puts it in the Launcher for easy access when you need it again.
- Right button (white button with a gray square): This is used to maximize the window to take up the full desktop area. Not all application windows use this button, so don't be surprised if you don't see it for an application that has a small window.
Every application that is currently in use has an entry in the Launcher on the left of the desktop. You can click these entries to minimize or restore the application, and you can right-click to see some other options.
Any menus with options that exist for a program currently in use in the foreground will appear in the top panel of the desktop. When you switch programs, the contents of the top panel will change accordingly. Hover over the name of the program at the top of a screen for a list of menus to appear. Click any one for a drop down list of options.
Finding Your Files and Folders
When using your computer, you often need to save and open files and folders, move them around, and perform other tasks. Click the Files & Folders icon from the Launcher for simple access to your files and folders or the File Manager icon to access files and folders across different parts of your computer or a network. Here are some of the main folders you will find by default:
- Home Folder: Your home folder is used to store the files and work for each user who is logged in. This is the most important folder on the system, and you can think of it as the equivalent of My Documents in Windows—virtually everything you save lives here. Each user has a separate home folder that is named after the user's username.
- Desktop: The Desktop folder is inside your home folder and contains files that visually appear on your desktop as icons. If you drag a file onto your desktop, it will appear in the Desktop folder. Similarly, moving a file out of this folder or deleting it will remove it from your desktop.
- Documents: This is a folder inside your home folder that is intended to contain word processing files and other documents you create.
- Downloads: This is a folder inside your home folder that is intended to contain items you download from the internet.
- Music: This is a folder inside your home folder that is intended to contain music files.
- Pictures: This is a folder inside your home folder that is intended to contain image files.
- Public: This is a folder inside your home folder into which you can place files you want other users on your system or network to be able to access.
- Templates: This is a folder inside your home folder that is intended to contain templates for applications like your word processor.
- Videos: This is a folder inside your home folder that is intended to contain visual media files.
- Network: This option accesses all networked and shared devices, such as file servers or printers, that are available on your local network. This is the equivalent of the Network Neighborhood or Network Places in various versions of Windows.
- Connect to Server: This option is available in File Manager from the File menu that is accessed by hovering over the words File Manager at the top of the screen when the application is open. Click this to run a wizard to create a connection to a network server. You can use this to add an icon to the desktop that, when clicked, provides a list of remote files in the desktop file manager. You can then treat this window like any other file manager window and drag files back and forth. This is really useful for copying files to and from other computers.
- Search for Files: Click Files & Folders from the Launcher to open and enter your search term(s) at the top of the window.
Configuring Your System
Click Applications from the Launcher and click the down arrow to the right of the search box. Select System to list Applications that let you configure and customize your system. Possibilities include:
- Broadcast Preferences: This changes settings related to social applications.
- Keyboard: This is where you install other keyboard layouts, languages, and adjust settings.
- Mouse: This is where you can adjust your mouse settings.
- Power Management: This is where you can adjust your power use settings.
- Screensaver: This is where you can adjust the operation of your screensaver.
- Time and Date: This is where you can adjust time and date settings, including setting Ubuntu to automatically update these via the internet.
Adding Additional Users
Many computers these days are used by more than one person. Rather than forcing everyone to use the same desktop settings or making the computer less secure by allowing everyone who uses it to have access to administrative functions, it is easy and recommended to create an account for every person who will use the computer. This allows each user to customize how the computer works and looks without interfering with anyone else's preferences, and it grants the administrator privileges that prevent others from accessing functions that may affect everyone or even damage the installation if used incorrectly.
Click Applications from the Launcher and choose Users and Groups to add a new user. In the dialog box that appears, there is a list of current users. At the bottom of the list, select Add to create a new user account, as in Figure 3-4.
Figure 3-4 The User Settings dialog
A password is required to make changes to users and groups, and only those users with administrative access are able to do so. You must now provide a name for the new user as well as a short name that will be used by that user to log in. Click OK, and in the next dialog box, enter a password for that user, confirm the password by entering it a second time, and click OK again. Voila, our new user account is created. You may also have a password generated randomly or allow the user to log in without a password. This last option is not generally a good idea but can be useful. For example, if the users are small children who are not expected to perform administrative tasks, the children could have an account that automatically logs in at boot time, and the administrator would have an additional account, accessed by a password, to perform changes and updates when necessary.
Finally, now that the account is created, we may customize its settings. Highlight the username in the list, and click the Change button at the right next to Account Type for a speedy way to give the user administration privileges. The Advanced Settings button from the lower right corner of the dialog box may be used to set contact information for the user, change the account's user privileges (for example, giving access to administrative and several other functions that are not available through the quick change option), and even change the location of the account's home directory. Be careful when using this power because an account can be damaged or rendered inaccessible if things are not done properly.
The Notification Area
On the right-hand side of the top of the desktop is the notification area and the clock. The notification area is similar to the Windows system tray in that it provides a series of small icons that indicate something specific. A good example of this is Network Manager, which looks after your network connections—both wired and wireless—for you.
You can adjust the notification area items by right-clicking them to view a context menu. Some icons (such as the volume control) allow you to left-click on them to view them. As an example, try clicking the little speaker icon and adjusting the slider.
Network Manager is a network interface created to help you manage your network devices and connections and is accessed using the network manager applet. The goal is to make networking "just work" easily and without requiring users to know how to hand-configure the settings (although that is still available for those who want to do so). A left-click of the mouse on the applet shows you the dialog box and enables quick changes between network types. It even provides an easy way to set up access through a virtual private network (VPN), such as many of us are required to use to securely access files from work or school. A right-click lets you enable or disable both wired and wireless networking, enable or disable notifications, see information about your current connection, and edit connections quickly and easily (Figure 3-5).
Figure 3-5 The Network Manager applet, right-clicked to show connections menu
Next to the notification area is the clock. Click on the clock to view a calendar. Later, when you use Evolution, items that are added to your calendar appear in the clock applet too. Instead of opening up Evolution to find out when your dentist appointment is, just click on the clock to see it immediately. More information about Evolution is contained later in this chapter.
The Launcher sits on the left of the screen. This icon bar is visible, except when an open window covers it, and indicates which applications are currently open as well as showing icon links for several applications. If the Launcher is hidden by a window, it will appear as soon as you move your mouse cursor over the area. In addition to indicating open applications and providing links to select applications, the Launcher also sneaks in a few other handy little features.
A purple icon with four squares inside it is the Workplace Switcher. Click it to show all of your desktop workspaces (it will also show you what is open in each, which is convenient). Each of these is another screen in which you can view an application. As an example, you may be using your Web browser and e-mail client while talking to your friends in a chat client on the first desktop and working on a document on the second desktop. You can then just click each virtual desktop to switch to it to access your different applications. Click the desktop you want to use. Essentially, this expands the screen real estate you have available and creates an easy way to keep many programs open without them blocking one another.
Other icons included by default are Tomboy Notes, a note taking application, Ubuntu One, cloud storage described in Chapter 11, and the Firefox web browser. At the bottom of the Launcher is the trash. Files dragged onto this icon or right-clicked and "moved to trash" are destined to be deleted. To fully delete these files, right-click the trash and select Empty Trash.
Shutting Down Your Computer and Logging Out
Now that you're becoming acquainted with Ubuntu, you'll want to keep using it as long as possible, but there will always come a time when you have no choice but to leave your computer and go do something else. As you have already seen, Ubuntu is extremely flexible, and this area is no exception. Click the icon in the top right of the screen to see the various options (shown in Figure 3-6) for ending your current computing session.
Figure 3-6 Ahh, the possibilities. . . .
A number of options are available upon logout; however, the choices presented to you will depend on your installation (e.g., Suspend may not be available).
- Lock Screen: This option locks the screen, which is useful when you need to use the bathroom or grab some lunch. It locks the computer and asks for your password to reenable the desktop.
- Guest Session: This option lets you allow someone else to use your computer while keeping you logged in but your data and account secure by giving the guest a limited desktop to work with temporarily and requiring your password to return to your desktop.
- Switch from . . .: Your username will be listed here. This option takes you to the login screen and lets you switch between logged in users without logging anyone out. It also requires each specific user's password to access his or her account.
- Log Out: This option lets you log out of the current session and go back to the main login screen.
- Suspend: If your computer supports it, this option will be included in the list, and you can click it to save the current state of your system in RAM. The next time your computer is turned on, the desktop will be resumed. This option continues to use power, but only a minimal amount.
- Hibernate: Save the current state of your system to the hard drive and on a restart your computer will resume.
- Restart: Click this to restart the computer.
- Shut Down: Click this to shut down your computer.